Louis XIV was one of the greatest kings of France, dubbed as Louis the Great or the Sun King. He was the only king of France to be executed. Louis XVI (born Louis-Auguste; August 23, 1754–January 21, 1793) was the French king whose reign collapsed because of the French Revolution.His failure to grasp the situation and to compromise, coupled with his requests for foreign intervention, were factors that led to his execution by guillotine and the creation of the new republic. He ruled for 72 years and 110 days that was the longest reign in European history. History casts him as a passive king—a plump and nerdy bystander to inequality who didn’t wake up to his subjects’ struggles until it was too late. He became heir after the deaths of his father and older brother. The next day, a motion to grant Louis XVI reprieve from the death sentence was voted down: 310 of the deputies requested mercy, but 380 voted for the immediate execution of the death penalty. Join now. On 27 August, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigrés French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe in the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Under this decision, the King agreed to retain many of the divisionary customs which had been the norm in 1614, but which were intolerable to a Third Estate buoyed by the recent proclamations of equality. In 1774, with the death of King Louis XV, Louis and Marie were crowned king and queen of France. Louis XVI, 1781 © Louis was king of France when the monarchy was overthrown during the French Revolution. louis xvi became king of france in 1774 AC New questions in History. In June 1791, they attempted to escape, which was considered proof of Louis' treasonable dealings with foreign powers. 1. . Necker supported the American Revolution, and he carried out a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, and Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. He became titular regent of France after his elder brother’s beheading in 1793. When the nobles were informed of the extent of the debt, they were shocked into rejecting the plan. However, Louis XVI and his reign were of interest as well. On 26 December, his counsel, Raymond de Sèze, delivered Louis' response to the charges, with the assistance of François Tronchet and Malesherbes. " In spite of his indecisiveness, Louis XVI was determined to be a good king, stating that he "must always consult public opinion; it is never wrong. While the National Assembly worked painstakingly towards a constitution, Louis and Marie-Antoinette were involved in plans of their own. At Versailles, Louis, the French dauphin, marries Marie Antoinette, the daughter of Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. France hoped their marriage would strengthen its alliance with Austria, its longtime enemy. On one hand, Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his brothers, the comte de Provence and the comte d'Artois, and he repeatedly sent messages to them requesting a halt to their attempts to launch counter-coups. Born on February 15, 1710, Louis XV was king of France for 59 years, from February 1715 until his death in May 1774. Whom was Louis XVI married to? One questioned, "Can the King do it? Until he reached maturity (then defined as his 13th birthday) on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. However, the revolution had thoroughly disorganised the army, and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined and the and the establishment of a republic became an ever increasing possibility. In June 1789, the Third Estate unilaterally declared itself the National Assembly. Log in. The key figure was Marie Antoinette's brother, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. After 1778, Britain switched its focus to the West Indies, as defending the sugar islands was considered more important than trying to recover the thirteen colonies. France also intervened in Cochinchina following Mgr Pigneau de Béhaine's intervention to obtain military aid. This had led to a strategy amongst the French leadership of seeking to rebuild the French military in order to fight a war of revenge against Britain, in which it was hoped the lost colonies could be recovered. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as an easy way to appear concerned about the developments in France without committing any soldiers or finances to change them, the revolutionary leaders in Paris viewed it fearfully as a dangerous foreign attempt to undermine France's sovereignty. The 19th-century historian Jules Michelet attributed the restoration of the French monarchy to the sympathy that had been engendered by the execution of Louis XVI.  Historians adhering to this view suggest that he was circumcised (a common treatment for phimosis) to relieve the condition seven years after their marriage. Republicanism now burst out of the coffee houses and became a dominating philosophy of the rapidly radicalized French revolution.. What King Louis XVI said at the time of his death proves that he really did want the people and country of France to be happy, only he was too terrified to stand up and take action on the persisting problems. The former king was then quickly beheaded. This negative turn of events signaled to Louis that he had lost the ability to rule as an absolute monarch, and he fell into depression. Louis XVI Quiz Questions with Answers. mini567 mini567 18.08.2020 History Secondary School +5 pts. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. It did not go well. As a last-ditch attempt to get new monetary reforms approved, Louis XVI convoked the Estates-General on 8 August 1788, setting the date of their opening at 1 May 1789.  Many accounts suggest Louis XVI’s desire to say more, but Antoine-Joseph Santerre, a general in the National Guard, halted the speech by ordering a drum roll. Louis was officially arrested on 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. c) 23 August 1754. Louis was stripped of all of his titles and honours, and from this date was known as simply Citoyen Louis Capet. But while this event did … Out of seven children, he was the third son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, and thus the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska. Despite his signing of the "Civil Constitution of the Clergy", Louis had been described as a martyr by Pope Pius VI in 1793. During his childhood, Louis-Auguste was neglected by his parents who favored his older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne. The empty pedestal in front of him had supported a statue of his grandfather, Louis XV, now torn down during the revolution. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders, the verdict was a foregone conclusion – with 693 deputies voting guilty, none for acquittal, with 23 abstaining. Louis himself held reservations against depending on foreign assistance. Members of the Commune and the most radical deputies, who would soon form the group known as the Mountain, argued for Louis's immediate execution. Beyond escape, they hoped to raise an "armed congress" with the help of the émigrés, as well as assistance from other nations with which they could return and, in essence, recapture France. In addition to the ideological differences between France and the monarchical powers of Europe, there were continuing disputes over the status of Austrian estates in Alsace, and the concern of members of the National Constituent Assembly about the agitation of émigrés nobles abroad, especially in the Austrian Netherlands and the minor states of Germany. An avid hunter like his grandfat… 72 of the deputies voted for the death penalty, but subject to a number of delaying conditions and reservations. 361 of the deputies voted for Louis's immediate death. He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment to 'despotic' monarchy was on the rise. As the heir, Louis was taught to avoid letting others know of his true feelings, which led to a disagreement among historians about his true intelligence. In 1789, to avert the deepening crisis, Louis agreed to summon the 'estates-general' (a form of parliament, but without real power) in order to try and raise taxes.  The resulting scandal served to discredit the king.  This account was proven true in 2012 after a DNA comparison linked blood thought to be from Louis XVI's beheading to DNA taken from tissue samples originating from what was long thought to be the mummified head of Henry IV of France. However, he became more and more disturbed as it became more and more radical. At the microscopic level, the failure of the escape plans was due to a series of misadventures, delays, misinterpretations, and poor judgments. From 1776 Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. 1) When did Louis XVI become the King of France? Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively. There are numerous other places named "Louisville", such as Louisville, Alabama, Louisville, Colorado, Louisville, Georgia, Louisville, Illinois, Louisville, Kansas, Louisville, Nebraska, Louisville, New York, Louisville, Ohio, Louisville, Kentucky, and Louisville, Tennessee, all located in the United States. From the reign of Louis XVI are often remembered his execution or the Revolutionary period, and his posterity is often eclipsed by the reputation of his legendary wife, Marie-Antoinette. As a consequence, Bussy moved his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius) and later contributed to the French effort in India in 1783. - 25135712 1. Louis XVI was 20 years old when he became the king of France. French involvement in the Seven Years' War had left Louis XVI a disastrous inheritance. This decision would be final. When the king died on May 14, 1643, 4-year-old Louis inherited the crown of … On the other hand, Louis was alienated from the new democratic government both by its negative reaction to the traditional role of the monarch and in its treatment of him and his family. 2. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. Louis XVI was beheaded on January 21, 1793, and French émigrés (nobles in exile) immediately proclaimed Louis-Charles the new king of France. Louis XVI of France was among the very few monarchs of his who believed in the ideas of Enlightenment and implemented them during his rule. He was guillotined in 1793. The deeper realization that the king had in fact repudiated the revolution, was an even greater shock for people who until then had seen him as a good king who governed as a manifestation of God's will. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime which culminated at the Estates-General of 1789. Revolutionary constitutional reign, 1789–1792, This article does not contain any citations or references. On July 3, 1793, he was taken from his mother and put under the surveillance of a cobbler, … He thought, mistakenly, that he was beloved by the peasants and the common folk. Joseph described the couple as "complete fumblers" but with his advice, Louis began to apply himself more effectively to his duties as a husband, and sometime in the third week of August 1777 Marie Antoinette finally became the true queen of France. The blood sample was taken from a gourd carved to commemorate the heroes of the French Revolution that had, according to legend, been used to house Louis's blood.. Author: Barry Jones. Cuckold. One suggestion is that Louis-Auguste suffered from a physiological dysfunction, most often thought to be phimosis, a suggestion first made in late 1772 by the royal doctors. When his father died, Louis became the dauphin, next in line to the throne. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. France's initial military assistance to the American rebels was a disappointment with defeats at Rhode Island and Savannah. The war cost 1,066 million livres, financed by new loans at high interest (with no new taxes). His words came too late. Louis XVI, the son and Dauphin of Louis and Marie Josephene of Saxony, was born in 1754 in the Palace of Versailles in France. 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