Numismatic evidence shows Greek artistic styles and the use of the Greek language. As the Greek and Levantine cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture (for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom). Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others. Ptolemy invaded Syria and defeated Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, in the Battle of Gaza of 312 BC which allowed Seleucus to secure control of Babylonia, and the eastern satrapies. Carte de la Macédoine et du monde égéen vers 200 av. The trends of Hellenization were therefore accompanied by Greeks adopting native ways over time, but this was widely varied by place and by social class. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. However, William Woodthorpe Tarn, between World War I and World War II and the heyday of the League of Nations, focused on the issues of racial and cultural confrontation and the nature of colonial rule. The use of war elephants also became common. They were defeated by Seleucus I in the 'battle of the Elephants', but were still able to establish a Celtic territory in central Anatolia. Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Mithridates also depicted himself with the anastole hairstyle of Alexander and used the symbolism of Herakles, from whom the Macedonian kings claimed descent. From the 6th century BC on, the multiethnic people in this region gradually intermixed with each other, creating a Greco-Getic populace. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). Hellenistic sculpture. In Asia, Eumenes was betrayed by his own men after years of campaign and was given up to Antigonus who had him executed. Many 19th-century scholars contended that the Hellenistic period represented a cultural decline from the brilliance of classical Greece. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). His son and successor, Nicomedes I, founded Nicomedia, which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign (c. 278 – c. 255 BC), as well as those of his successors, the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies of Anatolia. Rome eventually turned on Rhodes and annexed the island as a Roman province.  In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings, Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as 'Milinda'.  The city became a dominant trading hub and center of Hellenistic civilization in Iberia, eventually siding with the Roman Republic against the Carthaginian Empire during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). The Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achaean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or even the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in AD 330. One of the few city states who managed to maintain full independence from the control of any Hellenistic kingdom was Rhodes. What happened to the polis during the Hellenistic period? 370 BC), the Achaean League (est. According to Peter Green, these cults did not produce genuine belief of the divinity of rulers among the Greeks and Macedonians. The primary cause of this change was doubtless the transmission of Mesopotamian astrology to the Greco-Roman world and i… Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. The renewal of the historiographical approach as well as some recent discoveries, such as the tombs of Vergina, allow a better appreciation of this period's artistic richness. It has been noted by Herodotus that after the establishment of the Athenian democracy: ...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. Much of the eastern part of the empire was then conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by the Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey.  A parallel can be drawn with the productivity of the city states of Italy during the Renaissance, and their subsequent decline under autocratic rulers.  Another astronomer, Aristarchos of Samos, developed a heliocentric system. While Rome ended the Hellenistic Age, they were also its heirs.  Numismatic evidence shows that Hellenic influence penetrated further inland. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. In c. 210 BC, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was invaded by a resurgent Seleucid empire under Antiochus III. Under Ptolemy II, Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Theocritus, and a host of other poets including the Alexandrian Pleiad made the city a center of Hellenistic literature. What is the Hellenistic Age known for? The Greek kingdom of Bactria began as a breakaway satrapy of the Seleucid empire, which, because of the size of the empire, had significant freedom from central control. During the Hellenistic period, Judea became a frontier region between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt and therefore was often the frontline of the Syrian wars, changing hands several times during these conflicts. University of California Press. He then invaded Phoenicia, laid siege to Tyre, stormed Gaza and began building a fleet. After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in 285 BC and later died in captivity. The term Hellenistic is a modern invention; the Hellenistic World not only included a huge area covering the whole of the Aegean, rather than the Classical Greece focused on the Poleis of Athens and Sparta, but also a huge time range. The years of constant campaigning had taken their toll however, and Alexander died in 323 BC.  The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. Spreading to culture led to culture diffusion in Europe and Asia, also resulting in the creation of the Hellenistic Era. The second Diadochi war began following the death of Antipater in 319 BC. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and 'liberate' it from Roman influence, thus starting the Roman-Syrian War (192–188 BC). During a decade of campaigning, Alexander conquered the whole Persian Empire, overthrowing the Persian king Darius III. An unknown engineer developed the torsion-spring catapult (c. 360 BC) and Dionysios of Alexandria designed a repeating ballista, the Polybolos. The image of Alexander the Great was also an important artistic theme, and all of the diadochi had themselves depicted imitating Alexander's youthful look. However these Egyptian soldiers revolted, eventually setting up a native breakaway Egyptian state in the Thebaid between 205 and 186/185 BC, severely weakening the Ptolemaic state.. Southern Italy (Magna Graecia) and south-eastern Sicily had been colonized by the Greeks during the 8th century.  Greek temples built during the Hellenistic period were generally larger than classical ones, such as the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the temple of Artemis at Sardis, and the temple of Apollo at Didyma (rebuilt by Seleucus in 300 BC). What are some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period? Hellenistic age - Hellenistic age - Philosophy: The philosophers of the period pursued autarkeia (self-sufficiency), or nonattachment. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. These generals became known as the Diadochi (Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors"). J.-C. Webber, Christopher; Odyrsian arms equipment and tactics. Seleucus' war elephants proved decisive, Antigonus was killed, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there by recapturing a rebellious Athens. The use of Greek-style portraits and Greek language continued under the Roman, Parthian, and Kushan empires, even as the use of Greek was in decline. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 35. The Supplementum Hellenisticum, a modern collection of extant fragments, contains the fragments of 150 authors.. The Ptolemaic ruler cult portrayed the Ptolemies as gods, and temples to the Ptolemies were erected throughout the kingdom. Apollonius and Callimachus spent much of their careers feuding with each other. The spread of Greek culture and language throughout the Near East and Asia owed much to the development of newly founded cities and deliberate colonization policies by the successor states, which in turn was necessary for maintaining their military forces. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 117–118. Some natives did learn Greek and adopt Greek ways, but this was mostly limited to a few local elites who were allowed to retain their posts by the Diadochi and also to a small number of mid-level administrators who acted as intermediaries between the Greek speaking upper class and their subjects. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. , Period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history, "Greek world" redirects here. the Tobiads). Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea. Hellenism or at least Philhellenism reached most regions on the frontiers of the Hellenistic kingdoms. During the Hellenistic period the leading figure in Sicily was Agathocles of Syracuse (361–289 BC) who seized the city with an army of mercenaries in 317 BC. Achievements and Contributions in Science In the Classical Age of Greece, the study of sciences would be a matter of philosophical inquisition and curiosity. Abundant traces of Hellenism continued under the Parthian empire. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Initially Rhodes had very close ties with the Ptolemaic kingdom. He promoted short poetic forms such as the epigram, epyllion and the iambic and attacked epic as base and common ("big book, big evil" was his doctrine). Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered and assumed full control.  The 18th century terms Baroque and Rococo have sometimes been applied to the art of this complex and individual period. macherry. 250 BC), a student of Herophilos, a new medical sect emerged, the Empiric school, which was based on strict observation and rejected unseen causes of the Dogmatic school. Though this comparison is now seen as unfair and meaningless, it has been noted that even commentators of the time saw the end of a cultural era which could not be matched again. Hellenistic Geometers such as Archimedes (c. 287–212 BC), Apollonius of Perga (c. 262 – c. 190 BC), and Euclid (c. 325–265 BC), whose Elements became the most important textbook in Western mathematics until the 19th century AD, built upon the work of the Hellenic-era Pythagoreans.  Antiochus IV Epiphanes sacked Jerusalem and looted the Temple in 169 BC after disturbances in Judea during his abortive invasion of Egypt.  Traders from Massalia ventured inland deep into France on the Rivers Durance and Rhône, and established overland trade routes deep into Gaul, and to Switzerland and Burgundy. The separation of the Indo-Greek kingdom from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom resulted in an even more isolated position, and thus the details of the Indo-Greek kingdom are even more obscure than for Bactria. After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several 'kings' attested contemporaneously in different regions. 3 years ago. The Spartocids were a hellenized Thracian family from Panticapaeum. The Hellenistic Age was an era in Greece that extended from 323 BCE to 31 BCE.  The peoples around Pontic Olbia, known as the Callipidae, were intermixed and Hellenized Greco-Scythians. In science, the Greek scientific achievement was at its peak during the Hellenistic Age, for example, Alexander the Great hired engineers, surveyors, etc. Antiochus III ("the Great") conducted several vigorous campaigns to retake all the lost provinces of the empire since the death of Seleucus I. According to Strabo, the Greco-Bactrians seem to have had contacts with China through the silk road trade routes (Strabo, XI.11.1). The reason for the production of this translation seems to be that many of the Alexandrian Jews had lost the ability to speak Hebrew and Aramaic.. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Battle of Issus (333 BC) After the defeat of the Persians at … After this war he controlled most of south-east Sicily and had himself proclaimed king, in imitation of the Hellenistic monarchs of the east. Armies of the Hellenistic period differed from those of the classical period in being largely made up of professional soldiers and also in their greater specialization and technical proficiency in siege warfare. Appian of Alexandria (late 1st century AD–before 165) wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms. Stoicism, founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that virtue was sufficient for eudaimonia as it would allow one to live in accordance with Nature or Logos.  Devices of this sort are not found again until the 10th century, when a simpler eight-geared luni-solar calculator incorporated into an astrolabe was described by the Persian scholar, Al-Biruni. Between 301 and 219 BC the Ptolemies ruled Judea in relative peace, and Jews often found themselves working in the Ptolemaic administration and army, which led to the rise of a Hellenized Jewish elite class (e.g. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998. Recently, however, papyrologist C. Préaux has concentrated predominantly on the economic system, interactions between kings and cities, and provides a generally pessimistic view on the period. Another important source, Plutarch's (c. AD 50 – c. 120) Parallel Lives although more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures.  His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. In the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laërtius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source; works such as Cicero's De Natura Deorum also provide some further detail of philosophical schools in the Hellenistic period. As Egypt's first port city, it was the main grain exporter in the Mediterranean.  Though no Hellenistic tragedy remains intact, they were still widely produced during the period, yet it seems that there was no major breakthrough in style, remaining within the classical model. After 278 BC the Odrysians had a strong competitor in the Celtic Kingdom of Tylis ruled by the kings Comontorius and Cavarus, but in 212 BC they conquered their enemies and destroyed their capital. When Alexander the Great died (10 June 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. In 281 Pyrrhus (nicknamed "the eagle", aetos) invaded southern Italy to aid the city state of Tarentum. After the infantry stormed the palace of Babylon, a compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become king and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV). In these subjects he could give consummate pleasure, selling them for more than other artists received for their large pictures" (Natural History, Book XXXV.112). Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.  Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei, who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta (reigned 231–227 BC). Galatia was henceforth dominated by Rome through regional rulers from 189 BC onward. Walbank et al. Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence, though it retained nominal autonomy. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. The most brilliant age in the history of science prior to the seventeenth century a.d. was the period of the Hellenistic civilization. The Bithynians were a Thracian people living in northwest Anatolia. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning throughout the Mediterranean. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs, and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors seems mostly to have occurred with the spreading of Greeks themselves, rather than as an active policy. At least some Scythians seem to have become Hellenized, because we know of conflicts between the elites of the Scythian kingdom over the adoption of Greek ways.  The core of Carthage's military was the Greek-style phalanx formed by citizen hoplite spearmen who had been conscripted into service, though their armies also included large numbers of mercenaries. Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism.  Aretas captured Damascus and built the Petra pool complex and gardens in the Hellenistic style.  Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. The early Hellenistic Age also saw enduring achievements in the arts and learning, however. What are some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period? These new kingdoms were also influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). The Thracians and Agrianes were widely used by Alexander as peltasts and light cavalry, forming about one fifth of his army.  Cities and colonies were centers of administrative control and Macedonian power in a newly conquered region. [failed verification]. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the ancient Greek world with that of Western Asian, Northeastern African and Southwestern Asian. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus (301 BC). In 4th-century BC Sicily the leading Greek city and hegemon was Syracuse. 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