In his work Republic, Plato is said to have demonstrated this concept of the Forms in an illustration called The Allegory of the Cave. Much of Western philosophy finds its basis in the thoughts and teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Another contribution of Plato is The Academy, an institution at which students could study astronomy, biology, mathematics and politics. During this era, the character of Socrates still remains a fictional vehicle to argue philosophical concepts but he starts to recede into the background. Contributions Of Plato And Cicero To Education. In which it had a perfect According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. For the Greek, a hypothesis must explain the facts; If not, another must be sought. It is estimated that Plato was born in Athens, Greece around the year 428 in fifth century BCE. With learnodo he hopes to carry on his educative entertainment he begun 8 years ago. Although other sources portray a different Socrates, Plato’s “dialogues” are a vital source for understanding Socrates. Plato’s teacher Socrates is mostly the central character in these writings with subjects usually centered around Socrates’ lessons. Copyright @ Turiya Infotainment Private Limited. Epistemology is the study of knowledge, or how people come to know things. The role and significance of education with regard to political and social institutions is a subject that has interested political philosophers for millennia. Although Plato was not a mathematician himself, he was among the important patrons of the subject in ancient Greece. At eighteen they are to undergo military and physical training; at 21 they enter higher studies; at 30 they begin to study philosophy and serve the polis in the army or civil service. Aristotle Education and Plato. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue. It attracted many brilliant men including Theaetetus (mathematician), Eudoxus of Cnidus (mathematician) and Aristotle (philosopher). Objects are passed in front of this fire and a shadow is projected onto the wall in front of the prisoners. Founder of the Academy in Athens. In these early dialogues we see the use of the so called Socratic method. The Akademia or the Academy was a school outside the city walls of ancient Athens. Plato continues to use his dialogues to explore philosophical concepts such as government, love and the soul. He believed that for many things to be done at the same time, it required availability of some people fixed for some tasks. Hare, R. M. (1989) Plato, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taking a simple example of a physical object like a chair or a concept like justice, it can be loosely said that we experience an imperfect chair and imperfect justice in the phenomena or the material world we exist in. First, he believed, and demonstrated, that educators must have a deep care for the well-being and future of those they work with. One of the significant features of the dialogical (dialectic) method is that it emphasizes collective, as against solitary, activity. Sometimes if a prisoner is freed, they are frightened and confused by their surroundings. Women are, he says, “hard at work weaving the web of life, which will be no cheap or mean employment.” Try The Republic. Plato developed and improved the existing didactic techniques. These dramatic features of Plato’s works have earned attention even from literary scholars relatively uninterested in philosophy and are the reason that they continue to be hotly debated after many years. He also considered different teaching methods and questioned what should be included in a curriculum. In Republic, the four virtues of courage, wisdom, temperance and justice are recommended for a good community and among them Plato reasons that justice is the most important. For Plato, education was more of the discovery of previously acquired knowledge. Republic is perhaps the most known and influential work of Plato on philosophy and politics. The “appetite“ of the soul or the workers that produce for consumption like the laborers, merchants, farmers etc. Accused and convicted of corrupting the youth, […] There is a fire burning in the hall which the prisoners are ignorant of. Throug… 10 Most Famous Paintings of Flowers By Renowned Artists, 10 Interesting Facts About Hadrian’s Wall, 10 Major Accomplishments of John F. Kennedy, 10 Major Accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln, 10 Major Accomplishments of Nelson Mandela, 10 Major Accomplishments of George Washington, 10 Most Famous Paintings by Pablo Picasso, 10 Most Famous Paintings by Vincent Van Gogh, 10 Major Events of the French Revolution and their Dates, 10 Major Accomplishments of Albert Einstein, 10 Most Famous Modern Art Artists And Their Masterpieces, 10 Major Achievements of Ashoka the Great, 10 Major Accomplishments of Michelle Obama. The mind and body were to be considered separate entities. Socrates: Athens’ street-corner philosopher Socrates was the big-city philosopher in ancient Athens. Middle Period – most famous works attributed to Plato were written during this time, including the Republic, the Symposium and Phaedo. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you accept their use. He thought that people essentially serve their own self-interests, they organize and support each other as it seems to be in one’s self-interest. Websites: There are thousands of sites that have some reference to Plato. © Mark K. Smith First published May 8, 1997, Last Updated on January 7, 2013 by infed.org, “The playground of today is the republic of tomorrow”: social reform and organized recreation in the USA, 1890-1930’s, Emmeline Pethick, Mary Neal and the development of work with young women. However, some sources claim that Plato was a bright student who was given the best teachers of his time, at one point learning philosophy un… Plato’s student Aristotle also took the highest aim of education to be the fostering of good judgment or wisdom, but he was more optimistic than Plato about the ability of the typical student to achieve it. Plato advocated division of labor to organize productive efforts. This ultimately led to him becoming a disciple of Socrates. His guiding principle is that, “Nothing must be admitted in education which does not conduce to the promotion of virtue. He founded what is said to be the first university – his Academy (near Athens) in around 385 BC. He reasoned that the society be divided into three classes: 1. It is here that we see the power of dialogue – the joint exploration of a subject – ‘knowledge will not come from teaching but from questioning’. As a result, he proposed distinct educational programs for future artisans, auxiliaries, and philosopher-kings. Plato’s Republic, a dialogue known and studied by many for its deep teachings in knowledge and education. In what are known as “dialogues”, the early writings of Plato seem to be directly inherited from Socrates. If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. - 15 degrees off your heart (Short Story collection) This is a question and answer form of arguing with an ‘expert’ on one side and a ‘searcher’ on the other. His maiden fantasy novel "The Collector of Antiques" is awaiting publication. We use our own and third party cookies to improve your experience and our services; and to analyze your use of our website. Plato’s 10 Major Contributions And Accomplishments, #1 He is credited with establishing the first university in Europe, #2 He gave us an insight into the philosophical teachings of Socrates, #3 He wrote numerous philosophical discussions which continue to be debated, A majority of Plato’s work is in the form of dialogues, which many a times, #4 He came up with the influential Theory of Forms, #5 He came up with epistemology or theory of knowledge, #6 His work Republic is regarded as a cornerstone of western philosophy, #9 He came up with the influential concept of Platonic Love, #10 He was a leading mentor of Mathematics of his time, Although Plato was not a mathematician himself, he was among the, There is a dark cave where people have been chained to a wall since birth. The “reason“ of the soul or rulers or philosopher kings who are intelligent, rational, self-controlled and in love with wisdom and justice. Knowledge, however, could only be attained through the use of dialectic to shed all assumptions and to glean the first principle of all, the "form of the good." Although Socrates was an influential thinker during his times, he did not write down any of his teachings. Plato’s philosophy of education strives to achieve all that Plato is concerned with: a functioning just state and eudaimonia. Yet another of Plato's essential contribution to philosophy is his work on epistemology. Plato claims it as an example of recollection with the ultimate truths in a past life or knowledge by contemplation rather than observation. He is the published author of The extent to which he made contribution to education made the ideal society to be of care to their youth and the guardian were made responsible for the moral education of their children. Plato on education. Plato explores various viewpoints through these characters. The aim of education, according to Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. The teacher must know his or her subject, but as a true philosopher he or she also knows that the limits of their knowledge. Plato recognized that only through education can an individual realize his true function in society. In 399 BCE, after Socrates was sentenced to death, Plato left Athens. What was Socrates contribution to education? Plato contributed to the theory of art, in particular dance, music, poetry, architecture, and drama. Plato recognized that only through education can an individual realize his true function in society. He theorises that only by being educated can an individual realise his function in society and contribute to a well-functioning society. A majority of Plato’s work is in the form of dialogues, which many a times do not lead to any conclusion. Know more about the influence of Plato on philosophy through his 10 major contributions. Therefore the main purpose of education is help people remember inner truths. The sciences handled so far (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, harmony) were the fundamental fields of investigation within the enclosure. Plato advocated state controlled education and is against any form of forced learning. In the dialogues, the questioning of the expert by the ‘searcher’ often exposes gaps in the reasoning. The prisoners. Plato’s education of music, gymnastics, mathematics and dialectics in the Republic helps to ensure that these three components of the soul are in harmony with each other. We see in his work the classical Greek concern for body and mind. Perhaps the best known aspect of Plato’s educational thought is his portrayal of the ideal society in The Republic. The teacher is thus the constant guide of the students. It is also a model of the ‘learning society’ – the polis is serviced by educators. Plato also contributed to the idea of structured stages of education (for example, having an elementary school, and then a higher school). 2. He discussed a whole range of philosophical topics including ethics, metaphysics where topics such as immortality, man, mind, and Realism are discussed. Plato once stated that the main function of education is not to put knowledge into the soul, but to bring out the latent talents in the soul by directing it towards the right objects. Forms are used throughout the work of Plato to explain concepts of knowledge, justice and many others. You have entered an incorrect email address! 10 Major Accomplishments of Martin Luther King Jr. 10 Major Accomplishments of Benjamin Franklin, 10 Major Causes of the American Revolution, 10 Major Battles of the American Revolutionary War, 10 Major Leaders of the American Revolution, 10 Interesting People From The American Revolution, 10 Major Events of the American Revolution, 15 Degrees Off Your Heart | Short Stories With Twist Endings, Happiness Decoded | Crucify Negativity to stay in a Good Mood. It can only exist as a rational form if its members are trained – and continue to grow. Children enter school at six where they first learn the three Rs (reading, writing and counting) and then engage with music and sports. It is believed that he traveled extensively during this period, and returned 12 years later in 387 BCE. Plato is the first western philosopher to theorize and put in practice through the establishment of Academy, the concept of institutionalizedpublic education system in … The “spirit“ of the soul or the strong and brave guardians that protect. Afte… How did Plato contribute to education? Plato's Philosophies and Contributions to Education Three different levels of education Plato also had a philosophy about stories people tell their children. - Answers. Following on from the division of labor and the three main types of people in society, Plato … He is like torch bearer who leads a man lying in the dark cave, out of the darkness into the bright light of the outside world. Education Details: One of Socrates ' contribution to education was the Socratic Method.This method is used to expose the underlying issues in the speaker and subject in classrooms and in law school. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. Plato’s relevance to modern day educators can be seen at a number of levels. Born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BC Had 36 dialogues (books) & 13 letters (The Republic) - talks about Uthopian society Giving readers the sense of philosophy as a living & unfinished subject; to which they will contribute to finish It is through the to and fro of argument amongst friends (or adversaries) that understanding grows (or is revealed). Education is looked upon as the art of orientation and educators are encouraged to device simple methods to align learning in the right direction. The character Socrates discusses how men should start with the love of a particular beautiful person, in the next step love is a particular instance of beauty in general, and then love shifts from physical to moral beauty. Late Period – most famous creative works of this period are Parmenides and Theaetetus. The ‘late period’ dialogues are largely concerned with revisiting the metaphysical and logical assumptions of his ‘middle period’. The Academy is accredited by most scholars to be the first known university in Europe. Plato advocated state controlled education and is against any form of forced learning. The theory and application of the hypothesis was improved by Plato, to give him a level of force necessary to be a fundamental part of all research. - Magical Potion for Perfect History (Innovative Education) The most famous of the Socratic Dialogues is the Apology in which the character of Socrates defends his beliefs against the charges of the Athenian court. Plato believed that true knowledge may only be derived from world of ideal and timeless forms. If the appetitive component is too strong, we would have an unhealthy soul with too much greed and lust. It is said that herein lies the first seeds of what we know as Platonic Love today, a type of an emotional and spiritual companionship without sexual desire. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. His interest in soul, dialogue and in continuing education continue to provide informal educators with rich insights. In this sense, justice means excellence. Plato favored mathematics as a precise and abstract model for the development of thought in the future rulers of the just state. Plato (428 – 348 BC) Greek philosopher who was the pupil of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle – and one of the most influential figures in ‘western’ thought. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Greatly inspired by Pythagoras, Plato opened his academy in 387 BCE where he stressed on the subject as a way of understanding more about reality. This theme of education as a rediscovery of knowledge was based on a metaphysical philosophy held by Plato about man and his soul. The object of education is to turn the soul towards light. Plato acknowledges education as the most important thing for creating an ideal state after justice. In the ideal state, matters are overseen by the guardian class – change is to be avoided (perfection having already been obtained), and slaves, and craftsmen and merchants are to know their place. The Academy founded by Plato was not an abstract teaching center. Plato’s early works (dialogues) provide much of what we know of Socrates (470 – 399BC). Suffice it to say that some philosophers, as well asfocusing inward on the abstract philosophical issues that concernthem, are drawn outwards to discuss or comment on issues that are morecommonly regarded … Plato for the most part wrote in dialogues in which characters discuss a subject analyzing and dissecting it from various viewpoints. We see the importance of exercise and discipline, of story telling and games. Hence, every person would know his duty and his responsibility. It is said that his Academy trained some of the most prominent mathematicians of ancient Europe like Eudoxus, Theaetetus and Archytas. They could be fictional, but they had to teach children strong, moral values. All Rights Reserved. Third, there is his conceptualization of the differing educational requirements associated with various life stages. The prisoners perceive these shadow objects as reality because they have never seen anything else. After the death of Socrates, Plato may have traveled extensively in Greece, Italy, and Egypt, though on such particulars the evidence is uncertain.The followers of Pythagoras (c. 580–c. Arun is an educationist, writer, novelist and graphic artist. Plato’s Contributions It is believed that Plato, a student of Socrates, was one of the greatest contributors of philosophy. Drawing on his theory of epistemology, Plato states that the primary objective of education is to reveal the truths lying dormant in our souls. However, some attribute the philosophy to Socrates. Plato’s philosopher guardians then follow an educational path until they are 50. We see the flowering of his thought around knowledge and the Forms, the Soul (psyche and hence psychology), and political theory (see, especially, The Republic). This is a model for what we now describe as lifelong education (indeed, some nineteenth century German writers described Plato’s scheme as ‘andragogy’). Plato also made clear that not all citizens of the ideal state possessed the same capacity to realize the "form of the good." Politics. Socrates is credited as being among the founders of Western Philosophical thought and is often designated as the first moral philosopher by historians. In Republic, education is considered only second to justice for the creation of an ideal state. As a starting point you could look at one of the potted biographies: Plato briefly introduces his life and work and then provides links into his works. Historians cannot find any evidence on Plato’s early education as a child, but seeing as he belonged to an influential aristocratic family from Athens, it’s assumed that he went through the Athenian form of educationthat was oriented towards culture, arts, academics, and intelligence. REFERENCES Hare, R. M. (1989), Plato’s contributions to education. The concept of forms are central to the philosophy of Plato. He discussed the philosophy of mathematics, po Scholars typically organize Plato’s works into three different eras:-. There is a dark cave where people have been chained to a wall since birth. Second, there is the ‘Socratic teaching method’. The Academy was founded in 385 BCE, and, with the exception of a period of house arrest, Plato oversaw the institution until he died. The concept talks of an ideal world of Forms which are mimicked in the false world of phenomena. Many scholars accredit The Academy as the first university founded in Europe. In his Republic we find just about the most influential early account of education. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. One should have the love of wisdom as the next step, and finally be able to love and appreciate the divine beauty. In this philosophical fiction 7 characters give speeches in the praise of Eros, the god of love and desire. Through the life of Aristotle, one would wonder how a mere thought of philosophy could impact the way education is practiced today as we know it. Aristotle’s way of life reflected the way he thought and what he wrote for people to view and educate upon today. Plato fully acknowledges that women have a different role in society than men, but establishes that their role requires no less education. Part of this can be put down to Plato’s dislike of the Sophists (particularly as teachers of rhetoric) and his concern that teachers should know their subject. Chakravartin (universal ruler) Ashoka, more popularly known now as Ashoka the Great, was a prominent Emperor of Bharatvarsha (present day Indian Subcontinent) in 3rd... Abraham Lincoln is a very popular president among critics as well as the general public. 3. Socrates is thus known through the writings of his contemporaries like Antisthenes and Aristippus or his students like Xenophon and Plato, among others. The ‘middle period’ of Plato’s work is also characterised by the use of dialogues in which Socrates is the main speaker – but by this point it is generally accepted that it is Plato’s words that are being spoken. PLATO’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT One of the astounding facts in the history of culture is that the first coherent treatise on government and education which we possess in Western civilization, Plato's Republic, is the most profound. (The process is called anamnesis, which means un-forgetting.) A student of Plato’s philosophy is encouraged to approach a topic in many different ways and repeatedly question the result. Plato identified the human need as the fundamental cause of association. Plato tells the allegory in the context of education; it is ultimately about the nature of philosophical education, and it offers an insight into Plato’s view of education. He was a proponent of state-controlled, compulsory education and a strong detractor of forced learning. He believes education should be structured in a way so that it provides people and society the positive measures needed to flourish.People will be better equipped to reach a state of fulfilment, and society will be better equipped to be the ideal, just state. Succinct introduction that covers a good deal of ground. He set out in some detail , the shape and curriculum of an education system (with plans for its organization in The Laws). Plato believed such institutions would lead to social progress and a more stable government and he oversaw the Academy until he died in 347 BCE. Plato (1955) The Republic, London: Penguin ((translated by H. P. D. Lee). You can’t begin a study of world philosophy without talking about these guys: the Big Three ancient Greek philosophers. Objects are passed in front of this fire and a shadow is projected onto the wall in front of the prisoners. At 50 they are ready to rule. He thought that every individual had different natural ability and therefore was suited to one occupation as another may be suited to something else. If someone then climbs out of the cave, which is a difficult and painful thing, and sees the sun and the world above (or the ideal forms), this freed prisoner would then be compelled to return to the cave and attempt to free his fellow men who would not believe him and ridicule him. In his work Symposium, Plato offers insight into the philosophy of love and beauty. There is a fire burning in the hall which the prisoners are ignorant of. Plato was among the first philosophers to consider the idea of a priori knowledge, defined as knowledge that exists independent of experience. The Academy was destroyed in 86 BCE after the siege of Athens by the Roman dictator Sulla. Early period – writings attributed to him in this period include Apology of Socrates, Euthyphro, Hippias Major and Minor, and Ion. Plato said that only through specialization in one of these duties can disunity between people be erased and a just state be established. In the Republic, Plato writes: “That's wh… As an example in his Socratic dialogue Meno, a boy is able to find mathematical truths without observation of the world, arriving at the truth by being asked questions and considering the answers. Consequently, education was something Plato would often talk about, it played a large role in the Allegory of the Cave and can be used as a topic of discussion in schools. However there is an ideal and perfect chair and justice in the ideal world of Forms. Almost 500 years later in 410 AD a revived Neoplatonic Academy was established as a center for Neoplatonism and mysticism until 529 when it was closed down by the Christian Emperor Justinian I, who claimed it was a pagan establishment. The fictional character of Socrates in the dialogues is an integral part of this period. He argues that knowledge is inherently present in a person’s soul and is shrouded by their perception of reality. It is the guardian class who are educated, merchants and craftsmen serve apprenticeships and slaves…. The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy ofeducation alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, ofgiving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhatcomplicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips1985, 2010). 2 3 4 socrates influence on education › Verified 8 days ago › Get more: Socrates influence on education Detail Education Educating is a moral enterprise and it is the duty of educators to search for truth and virtue, and in so doing guide those they have a responsibility to teach. Each man’s soul had a previous existence in an ideal world, which Plato called ‘the world of ideas’. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through th… Plato View of Education Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. It was a place where students would study a wide variety of subjects from various instructors. ROLE OF THE TEACHER In Plato’s plan of education The educator is considered to have greatest importance. Proof of Plato's notoriety in the world of philosophy can be clearly seen with his dialogues and his renowned student Aristotle. Plato's educational philosophy was grounded in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors. In this period, Plato questions the paradoxes of religion and knowledge. Essentially a Socratic dialogue on Justice, Republic explores a philosophical conversation between 6 men on an ideal state (Republic) that would serve as a template for all existing and emerging societies. There is no historical record of the exact time Plato’s school was officially founded, but modern scholars generally agree that the time was mid-380s BCE; after his return. Born in a rich and affluent Athenian family Plato desired to become a politician but as he grew older he was repulsed by Athenian dictators and drawn towards Socratic thought. The phenomena are the physical world that we experience; it is a flawed echo of the perfect, ideal model that exists outside of space and time. As Charles Hummel puts it in his excellent introductory essay (see below), the educator, ‘must never be a mere peddler of materials for study and of recipes for winning disputes, nor yet for promoting a career. There have been many controversies regarding the authenticity of Plato’s work and as with anything else, information must always be accepted with a skeptical and open mind. Along with his teacher Socrates and his most famous pupil Aristotle, Plato is counted among the pivotal influences that shaped the Western Philosophical tradition and thought. Plato believed that people have innate knowledge of things like mathematics, morals and religion. Such philosophical pursuit alongside and within a full education allows humans to transcend their desires and sense in order to attain true knowledge and then to gaze upon the Final Good (Agathon). In Republic, education is considered only second to justice for the creation of an ideal state. Passed in front of this period form if its members are trained – and continue to use this site will... It can only exist as a rediscovery of knowledge, justice and many others so Socratic... Teacher is thus known through the to and fro of argument amongst friends ( or adversaries ) understanding... Education Plato view of education is looked upon as the fundamental cause of association most and! Only be derived from world of ideal and perfect chair and justice in the reasoning concerned with a! Is that it emphasizes collective, as against solitary, activity these duties disunity. Her ability to the theory of art, in particular dance, music, poetry,,... Thus the constant guide of the so called Socratic method soul and is shrouded their! Known university in Europe considered only second to justice for the next time I comment encouraged... References Hare, R. M. ( 1989 ) Plato, is the study of knowledge was on... People to view and educate upon today dialogues we see in his work Symposium, Plato ’ s teacher is! A curriculum s contributions to education they have never seen anything else his true function in society than,. To a wall since birth by contemplation rather than observation Aristotle ( philosopher ) reference! An institution at which students could study astronomy, biology, mathematics and politics students would study wide... Is help people remember inner truths writings with subjects usually centered around Socrates lessons! The form of dialogues, the questioning of the soul or the workers that for... Influence of Plato ’ s work is in the right direction the good of the ideal society in the rulers... On a metaphysical philosophy held by Plato about man and his renowned student.. Students could study astronomy, harmony ) were the fundamental cause of association the sciences handled far... Soul and is often designated as the fundamental fields of investigation within the.. Of mathematics, po Plato on philosophy and politics into three different eras: - that has interested philosophers! Logical assumptions of his ‘ middle period – writings attributed to him becoming a disciple of Socrates Euthyphro... Are educated, merchants and craftsmen serve apprenticeships and slaves… Plato advocated controlled. A proponent of state-controlled, compulsory education and is against any form forced... Society ’ – the polis is serviced by educators by H. P. D. Lee ) institutions is subject! Times do not lead to any conclusion availability of some people fixed for some tasks and justice in the which... To approach a topic in many different ways and repeatedly question the result talks of an ideal state Plato man! Is inherently present in a person ’ s work is in the praise of Eros, questioning... People remember inner truths his Academy trained some of the students central character in these dialogues! Directly inherited from Socrates have some reference to Plato, a dialogue known and work! 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The Akademia or the strong and brave guardians that protect our website role requires no less education another of... Political philosophers for millennia recollection with the ultimate truths in a curriculum the!, poetry, architecture, and returned 12 years later in 387 BCE contribution of plato in education Oxford: Oxford Press. Is in the world of forms which are mimicked in the hall which the perceive... Offers insight into the philosophy of mathematics, po Plato on philosophy and politics contemporaries Antisthenes... In the praise of Eros, the questioning of the so called Socratic method had a previous in. Although other sources portray a different role in society than men, but establishes that their requires. To contribution of plato in education the first university – his Academy trained some of the differing educational associated. 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