Tabulation can be done by hand or by mechanical or electronic devices. Under this method, the codes are written on a sheet of paper, called tally sheet, and for each response a stroke is marked against the code in which it falls. First step involved in data processing is the recording. express thanks to the respondents for their co-operation. Data analysis and qualitative data research work a little differently from the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Political Science and International Relations, CCPA – Do Not Sell My Personal Information. With this brief introduction concerning the concepts of processing and analysis, we can now proceed with the explanation of all the processing operations. The means of performing the processing operation vary according to whether manual, electro-mechanical, or electronic methods are used. A data set is a representation of data, defining a set of variables" that are measured on a set of cases." How to determine the frequency of each class? Copy and paste the following HTML into your website. This method is fast but expensive. It occurs not only during the origination step and during the distribution step but throughout the processing cycle, for example recording of the final results. This can be done either by tally sheets or by mechanical aids. Hand tabulation may be done using the direct tally, the list and tally or the card sort and count methods. Hence it is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. Data processing functions. The Schedules The schedules are the timed plan for a survey. 20–30
Most generally, data can be defined as a list of numbers possessing meaningful relations. But when the phenomenon happens to be a continuous one capable of being measured in fractions as well, we can use exclusive type class intervals. It provides a basis for various statistical computations. Mildred B. Parten in his book points out that the editor is responsible for seeing that the data are; 1. Researchers who are attempting to answer a research question employ the research process. Sort: Read Now . Back to Top. 40–50
Thus, under the exclusive type class intervals, the items whose values are equal to the upper limit of a class are grouped in the next higher class. Such intervals may be expressed like under Rs 500 or Rs 10001 and over. The former type of tabulation gives information about one or more groups of independent questions, whereas the latter type of tabulation shows the division of data in two or more categories and as such is deigned to give information concerning one or more sets of inter-related questions. Similar to a production process, it follows a cycle where inputs (raw data) are fed to a process (computer systems, software, etc.) Descriptive characteristics refer to qualitative phenomenon which cannot be measured quantitatively; only their presence or absence in an individual item can be noticed. With properly processed data, researchers can write scholarly materials and use them for educational purposes. Explore the Methods Map. During data entry the verbal or numeric data collected using questionnaires, abstraction forms, or observations are entered into a computer, principally as numeric … Recording basically means transferring of data onto some form of document. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. It should also be kept in mind that in case one or two or very few items have very high or very low values, one may use what are known as open-ended intervals in the overall frequency distribution. The following are illustrative examples of data processing.
The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. B. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. The stated upper limit of the class interval 11–20 is 20 but the real limit is 20.99999 and as such 11–20 class interval really means 11 and under 21. Data Processing found in: Data Processing System Input And Output Ppt PowerPoint Presentation Icon Information, Business Data Processing With Icons Ppt PowerPoint Presentation Professional Design Inspiration, Data Analytics.. To improve your data analysis skills and simplify your decisions, execute these five steps in your data analysis process: Step 1: Define Your Questions Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy reference. Classification according to class-intervals: Unlike descriptive characteristics, the numerical characteristics refer to quantitative phenomenon which can be measured through some statistical units. 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