To provide comprehensive documentation of the response of key physical and biological indicators to alternative flow regimes to better inform decision on the long term flow regime for the Lower Bridge River. River Productivity. In polluted tropical rivers, productivity responds to nutrient … Specifically, in this “vernal window” scenario, we modified the “spring peak” regime so that GPP begins to increase 7 d and 14 d earlier, respectively, although we assumed that peak GPP remains the same (Supporting Information Fig. The Riverine Productivity Model: An Heuristic View of Carbon Sources and Organic Processing in Large River Ecosystems. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, For this reason, we expect that the Stochastic scenario, in which any given reach within the network can follow any of four empirical productivity regimes, is more likely to represent the behavior of real drainage networks, and may provide a reliable first approximation of GPP at broad scales. Within a river reach, light, heat, and hydrologic disturbance limit gross primary production (GPP) (Uehlinger 2000; Roberts et al. Together, these results suggest that network productivity regimes may be highly variable, but are also sensitive to factors affecting the amount or timing of GPP in small streams. provides a chance for suggesting hypotheses and for challenging current thinking on ecological. However, other factors such as network shape and geomorphic structure may shift the accumulation of benthic surface area and, by extension, primary production. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. 2015). Therefore, while a substantial proportion of annual, network GPP is accumulated earlier in the year, spring‐time productivity in the Stochastic scenario reflects the metabolism of both small streams and larger rivers. We therefore suggest that altered watershed land use can shift both the timing and spatial arrangement of productivity at river‐network scales, and thus may increase the likelihood for phenological mismatches between aquatic organisms and ecosystem processes (Bernhardt et al. For example, network elongation changes the relative proportion of small vs. large rivers and can influence biogeochemical processing at network‐scales (Helton et al. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. 1b) and the Unproductive rivers scenarios (day 95; Fig. Does the topology of the river network influence the delivery of riverine ecosystem services?. Maximum growth rates of this diatom (approximately 1.8 divisions per day) were obtained in water samples from the late winter-early spring months. The limiting factors that govern what organisms can live in lotic ecosystems include current, light intensity, temperature, pH , dissolved oxygen, salinity, and nutrient availabilityvariables routinely measured by limnologists to develop a profile of the environment. 2007), and the prevalence of small streams in river networks, we expect that variability in the light regime in headwater streams will likely impact both the amount and timing of productivity across river networks. Modifying reach‐scale productivity regimes to implicitly increase light availability in small streams resulted in greater annual, network GPP relative to our baseline model scenarios. Productivity in larger river segments became more influential on the magnitude and timing of network‐scale GPP as watershed size increased, although small streams with relatively low productivity contributed a substantial proportion of annual, network GPP due to their large collective surface area. Well depths and thickness of overburden._____ 4. Our initial predictions of network‐scale productivity provide mechanistic understanding of the factors that shape aquatic ecosystem function at broad scales. (Public domain. Results from simulated networks indicate that river‐network productivity is often more persistent throughout the year compared to individual stream reaches. 2004). Biological production represents the total amount of living material (biomass) that was produced during a defined period of time. High‐resolution data are improving our ability to resolve temporal patterns and controls on river productivity, but we still know little about the emergent patterns of primary production at river‐network scales. Production is often limited by turbidity, which tends to be at a maximum after high flow events. Seasonal patterns in GPP may also vary with network position; large rivers with open canopies exhibit summer peaks in productivity (Uehlinger 2006), whereas in small, forested streams, terrestrial phenology and frequent scouring floods limit GPP to a relatively narrow temporal window (Roberts et al. Productivity in larger river segments became more influential on the magnitude and timing of network‐scale GPP as watershed size increased, although small streams with relatively low productivity contributed a substantial proportion of annual, network GPP due to their large collective surface area. 2; 40 km2). However, more data are needed to better understand the changes in both sediment and water quality in the Harlem River, both as the tide cycles and during precipitation events. Although the simulations shown here are not a model for any specific real ecosystem, OCNs are most effective for simulating networks in runoff‐generating catchments where geomorphology is primarily driven by erosion. We hypothesized that an extended vernal window, characterized by high incident light reaching streams combined with earlier onset of warmer water temperatures, leads to a corresponding increase in the duration of the spring GPP peak. Productivity is important in economics because it has an enormous impact on the standard of living. Also, the countries at the bottom of Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Generation and application of river network analogues for use in ecology and evolution. We hypothesize that factors affecting benthic surface area or metabolic activity in small streams, including stream burial (Elmore and Kaushal 2008) or variable patterns of drying and intermittency (Stanley et al. Removing the light constraint from riparian vegetation in a subset of streams had a more appreciable effect on network‐scale GPP. 2018) constrain our ability to broadly predict patterns in network‐scale productivity. ), Native mussel biopsy (Public domain.). Using simulated river networks, we show that even simple assumptions about scaling empirical rates of GPP can yield a wide range of network productivity regimes that vary with watershed size, the productivity of large rivers, and the riparian light regime. The scaling transition from stream reaches to river networks thus requires quantifying and conceptualizing the heterogeneity, connectivity, and asynchrony (sensu McCluney et al. These modeled scenarios therefore do not capture the local heterogeneity in light and GPP that is expected along a river continuum due to local variation in canopy cover, topography, and geomorphology (Julian et al. Although the snag habitat accounted for only °6% of the effective habitat substrate over a stretch of river, it was responsible for over half of invertebrate biomass, and °15—16% of production. 2007). Average NPP T was double in higher P environments (17.0 ± 1.1 Mg ha −1 yr −1 ) compared to lower P regions (8.3 ± 0.3 Mg ha −1 yr −1 ). The shape and magnitude of the network‐scale productivity regime changes as watershed size increases and cumulative, river‐network GPP captures the metabolic activity of larger river reaches. Our goal was to highlight how different expectations regarding the spatial and temporal structure of GPP in rivers define a range of network‐scale productivity regimes. Confidence intervals were calculated from the 95% quantiles of the modeled distribution. Gross Primary Productivity Stream Ecosystem Community Respiration River Continuum Environmental Research Laboratory These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. On the other hand, the largest increases of relative GDP per capita for this ten year time period are shown for Luxembourg, the Slovak Republic, Norway and Estonia. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. 1980). ... are sorted according to their relative probability (P. R) of being the most 2010)—as mobile animals travel through or otherwise “sample” river networks as individuals or populations—or for network‐scale nutrient cycling, which may not be limited to the season of peak productivity in any given stream reach. We applied the modified productivity regimes to all stream reaches in the river network that were assigned the “spring peak” regime. Reach‐scale areal productivity rates (g O2 m−2 d−1) were converted from O2 to C units assuming a 1:1 molar relationship between carbon and oxygen, and then multiplied by streambed surface area (m2) to calculate daily rates of GPP for each stream reach (g C d−1). A new study of enormous scale supports what numerous smaller studies have demonstrated throughout the pandemic: female academics are taking extended lockdowns on the chin, in terms of their comparative scholarly productivity.. For example, streams draining 100 km2 or less contributed 21% of annual GPP in our simulated network, given the Productive rivers scenario and 57% of annual GPP given the Unproductive rivers scenario. Watershed geomorphology modifies the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism to temperature, https://doi.org/10.4211/hs.eba152073b4046178d1a2ffe9a897ebe, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/eba152073b4046178d1a2ffe9a897ebe. In the “riparian clearing” scenario, we modified the reach‐scale assignments to simulate river‐network GPP under conditions where light does not limit GPP in small streams, for example, in a terrestrial biome with fewer trees, or due to riparian clearing. We evaluated the timing of annual network productivity for each model scenario and watershed size by calculating the day of year that exceeded 50% of annual, network‐scale GPP. USGS scientist Brent Knights conducting fish sampling on the Upper Mississippi River. Summer water samples supported little or no growth of this diatom. 2018). We resampled the empirical time series and repeated network‐scale simulations 1000 times. S1, Table S1) to investigate how the magnitude and timing of network GPP varies with watershed size. Mean estimates (± 95% confidence intervals) of network‐scale GPP are shown for a 2621 km, © 2021 Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Limnology and Oceanography Fluids and Environments, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7790-330X, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6928-2104, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6075-837X, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5872-0666, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7641-9949, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0763-5346, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3031-621X, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Benthic community metabolism in four temperate stream systems: An inter‐biome comparison and evaluation of the river continuum concept, Ecosystem metabolism in piedmont streams: Reach geomorphology modulates the influence of riparian vegetation, Climate warming causes intensification of the hydrological cycle, resulting in changes to the vernal and autumnal windows in a northern temperate forest, The igraph software package for complex network research, Intermittent rivers: A challenge for freshwater ecology, Disappearing headwaters: Patterns of stream burial due to urbanization, Stream size and human influences on ecosystem production in river networks, Horizons in stream biogeochemistry: Flowpaths to progress, How network structure can affect nitrogen removal by streams, Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology, Empirical modeling of light availability in rivers, Basin‐scale consequences of agricultural land use on benthic light availability and primary production along a sixth‐order temperate river, Riverine macrosystems ecology: Sensitivity, resistance, and resilience of whole river basins with human alterations, Longitudinal patterns of metabolism in a southern Appalachian river, Fluvial landscape ecology: Addressing uniqueness within the river discontinuum, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, Minimum energy and fractal structures of drainage networks, Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: Results from 2 years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream, Estimating ecosystem metabolism to entire river networks, Fractal river basins: Chance and self‐organization, A network model for primary production highlights linkages between salmonid populations and autochthonous resources, Metabolic rhythms in flowing waters: An approach for classifying river productivity regimes, Population diversity and the portfolio effect in an exploited species, Effects of water loss on primary production: A landscape‐scale model, Seasonality and predictability shape temporal species diversity, Resistance and resilience of ecosystem metabolism in a floodprone river system, Annual cycle and inter‐annual variability of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration in a floodprone river during a 15‐year period. (2019) identified four groups of streams with similar temporal patterns in GPP, which they described as “spring peak,” “summer peak,” “aseasonal,” and “summer decline” (Supporting Information Fig. We assumed that pixels within the OCN form an active stream channel when their drainage area, a proxy for threshold‐limited fluvial erosion, exceeds a minimum threshold of 50 pixels, or 0.5 km2. The envelope of possible river‐network productivity regimes we present here provides greater mechanistic understanding of the factors that influence ecosystem productivity in real drainage networks. 1e). In intermediate‐sized watersheds (e.g., 160 km2), we observed substantial variability in the temporal pattern of network GPP for the Productive rivers scenario, where replicate subcatchments adopted either the spring‐dominated pattern or the bimodal regime characteristic of larger watersheds (Fig. However, assuming large rivers are productive, the distribution of network GPP shifted later in the year as watershed size increased and more large rivers were sampled (Fig. At the scale of river networks, the seasonal dynamics of primary productivity determine the amount and timing of energetic inputs that feed mobile organisms and generate the export of labile carbon downstream. Such data sets highlight the tremendous variability in productivity observed both within and across streams (Bernhardt et al. 1a). Living occupants … Figure 6. Our simulation of river networks at a range of productivity regimes provides an initial approximation of river ecosystem productivity at broad scales, and shows that in some cases, small streams and certain time periods disproportionately influence river network productivity. Effects of Food Quality on Juvenile Unionid Mussel Survival and Growth in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Evidence of Effects of Invasive Asian Carps on Selected fishes of the Upper Mississippi River System, Assessing the Threat and Predator Control of a Non-native, Aquatic Invader (Zebra Mussel, Loading, Processing, and Effects of Nutrients on Aquatic Biota in Flood Plain Backwaters and Channels of the St. Croix NSR (SACN) and Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (MISS), Effects of Hydrologic Connectivity (Water Retention Time) on Fish and Food Webs in Off-channel Areas of the Upper Mississippi River as, Effects of Asian Carp on Fish, Birds and Food Webs in Off-channel Areas of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers as Determined with Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Effects of Environmental Factors on the Abundance, Size Structure and Kinds of Fish in Off-channel Areas of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers as Determined with Data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, Effects of Environmental Factors on Mercury Accumulation in Fish and Food Webs in Remote Lakes of the Upper Midwest. In contrast, peak network productivity occurred earlier in the year for both the Stochastic (day 109; Fig. Such classifications enable representation of the spatial heterogeneity in river ecosystems, and provide a framework for scaling ecosystem processes to network‐scales. Rivers, in their natural state, are among the most dynamic, diverse, and complex ecosystems on the planet. We calculated the width (m) of each node, or stream reach, as W = 0.0013A0.479, where A is drainage area (m2), based on the hydraulic geometry of streams and rivers that make up the GPP classification data set described below (Leopold and Maddock 1953; Savoy et al. These networks are thus not suitable for describing rivers with large floodplains, for example. FORUM issues. Our goal was to explore the envelope of river‐network productivity regimes by deriving network‐scale estimates of GPP for clear end‐members of the likely distribution of productivity regimes in real networks. Of course, unshaded headwaters are not unique to human‐altered landscapes, and GPP dynamics in the riparian clearing scenario may also reasonably represent river networks draining prairie, alpine, or desert landscapes. 16,17 Our study follows this direction and analyzes self-reported productivity loss compared with an optimal state. This research is a product of the StreamPULSE project, which was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Macrosystems Biology Program (grant EF‐1442451 to AMH, EF‐1834679 to ROH, and EF‐1442439 to ESB and JBH). Working off-campus? Values for rivers range from 10 to 200mgCm −2 d −1 to more than 1000mgCm −2 d −1. Recent improvements in the methods for monitoring dissolved gases and modeling metabolic rates (Hall and Hotchkiss 2017) have increased the availability of time series capturing daily, seasonal, and annual variation in GPP. 2019). Relative to the baseline scenario, shifting 20% of small streams to the “summer peak” regime increased annual, network‐scale GPP by 16%, 17%, and 44% for the Productive rivers, Stochastic, and Unproductive rivers scenarios, respectively (Supporting Information Table S3). And the growth of Cana dian manufacturing productivity has slowed relative to all other members of the Group of Seven rich countries. For the Productive rivers and Unproductive rivers scenarios, the overall network pattern was sensitive to the number of river segments wider than 9 m, and therefore, to small differences in network shape (e.g., elongation) among subcatchments of equal size. FORUM FORUM is intended for new ideas or new ways of interpreting existing information. Dam construction on river systems worldwide has altered hydraulic retention times, physical habitats and nutrient processing dynamics. Therefore, annual, network‐scale GPP scales allometrically (exponent > 1) with watershed size, such that river‐network GPP increases disproportionately faster than change in drainage area. Without the river and its load of nutrients, marine productivity in the Gulf of California — where the Colorado River once ended — has fallen by up to 95 percent. We therefore expect that differences in river network structure may further expand the variation around the GPP scaling relationships we present here. S2). 2). Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, Distribution and Controls over Habitat and Food-web Structures and Processes in Great Lakes Estuaries. 2019). 2018), yet also enable new opportunities to characterize temporal patterns in reach‐scale processes and resolve underlying causes of heterogeneity. The productivity of macrophytes in streams and rivers is limited by a variety of interacting factors. Our method for assigning reach‐scale regimes in the Productive rivers and Unproductive rivers scenarios divides the population of river reaches into only two functional types depending on river width. Annual productivity growth, which has been 2.3% in 1946-73,fell to 0.9% in 1973-90. For our simulated river network, network‐scale GPP followed a somewhat bimodal pattern when large river segments were assumed to be relatively productive (Fig. Assess the effectiveness of habitat rehabilitation and restoration efforts. As a result, modeled shifts in the light regime in small streams substantially altered the magnitude and distribution of network‐scale primary production. However, current approaches primarily address the behavior of individual stream reaches over timescales spanning days to seasons, and limited empirical estimates of primary production throughout river networks (e.g., Rodríguez‐Castillo et al. Productivity, Inc. provides metal working machine tools, supplies, robots, and related equipment for manufacturing in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and western Wisconsin. to a proxy for relative prices between these same two sectors. We focused our analysis to explore how patterns in network‐scale productivity change with watershed size and differences in the spatial arrangement of reach‐scale GPP. Productivity relative to smolt abundance for aggregate Babine (i.e., wild and enhanced) sockeye. 2014) among spatially distributed patches that combine to form dynamic river networks (Poole 2002; Fisher et al. 4), suggesting that widespread riparian clearing adjacent to headwater streams has considerable effects on network‐scale patterns of productivity. In either case, as watershed size increases, heterogeneity among reaches is averaged out at the network‐scale. In our riparian clearing scenario, the three disparate model scenarios converged on a similar temporal pattern in GPP as more streams adopted the “summer peak” productivity regime. For example, a recent synthesis showed that annual patterns of GPP observed across rivers could be categorized into discrete classes of rivers that share similar productivity regimes (Savoy et al. productivity one. Regional human influences on Hudson River habitats and proposed . We used these networks to address our overarching research question: To what extent are there distinct productivity regimes for river networks? (TWh/y) up to ∼14 TWh/y (70% of total span, value relative to BDP2 “Deﬁnite Future” scenario). Here, we estimate daily and annual river‐network gross primary production (GPP) by applying characteristic temporal patterns of GPP (i.e., regimes) representing distinct river functional types to simulated river networks. Christopher V. Manhard, Nicholas A. Som, Russell W. Perry, Jimmy R. Faukner and Toz Soto . Pixel size was assumed equal to 100 m × 100 m, and so our simulated network drained a catchment area of 2621 km2. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. No data point selected. 1f), and 50% of annual network productivity was accumulated by day 158 (compared to day 183 for the Productive rivers scenario; Table 1). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, The envelope of annual river‐network productivity regimes for a 2621 km, Annual productivity regimes for catchments draining 40, 160, 450, and 2600 km, Small streams contribute a substantial proportion of (, Riparian clearing increases annual, river‐network GPP and shifts the peak in network productivity toward the summer. 2008a, In the Unproductive rivers scenario, the spring‐time GPP peak was driven by metabolic activity in small streams (Fig. Understanding the relative Habitat areas per length of shoreline were estimated so that we could approximate relative amounts of biomass and production for a stretch of river. Taylor River sites showed the highest P limitation (soil N:P > 60). shallow and deep-water habitats in the upper Hudson River estuary (river miles 110-152) 17 . In small watersheds (e.g., 40 km2), river network GPP is limited to a short period in the spring when incident light reaching headwater streams is high prior to terrestrial leaf‐out. restoration actions 23 . Despite their relatively low productivity on an individual basis, collectively, small streams constitute a large proportion of benthic surface area in river networks; stream segments draining 100 km2 or less represent 56% of benthic surface in our 2621 km2 network (Fig. Across a range in watershed size, annual, network‐scale GPP increased disproportionately relative to drainage area (i.e., allometric scaling with exponent > 1; Supporting Information Fig. Beyond reach‐scales, however, rivers are not linear entities. We show how concepts of stream metabolism developed at the scale of individual river reaches allow for initial predictions of the primary productivity of entire river networks. Savoy et al. Drowned river valleys are also known as coastal plain estuaries. The shift of the production function led to a fall in capital inputs per payload ton despite the relative price decline of capital. 2017). 2017). For this study, we generated one OCN (512 × 512 pixels) following the procedure of Rinaldo et al. The relative importance of freshwater and marine factors is seldom quantiﬁed because a long time series of life-stage-speciﬁc demographic data is required and often unavailable. Science Center Objects . We thank the editors and anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. _ Page 37 56 58 60. To explore how factors affecting light availability in streams—including the structure and phenology of riparian vegetation—might influence river‐network productivity, we evaluated two additional model scenarios. Specifically, we used a conceptual modeling framework to examine how the magnitude and timing of annual, river‐network GPP varies with (1) watershed size, and (2) reach‐scale variation in light. Therefore, their cumulative effect on river‐network productivity is large. Estimating Freshwater Productivity, Overwinter Survival, nd a Migration Patterns of Klamath River Coho Salmon . Of living material ( biomass ) that was produced during a defined period of.! River networks ( OCNs ) to investigate how the Biological properties of river networks peak productivity! Mean areal productivity rates were greater in larger watersheds ( Table 1 ) has increased... Sound understanding of Biological production represents the total amount of living material ( biomass ) that was during... A measure of energy flow, and so our simulated networks, streambed surface area accumulates than. To network‐scales and distribution of network‐scale primary productivity stream ecosystem Community Respiration river Continuum research... See more information scenarios ( day 109 ; Fig fall in capital inputs per payload ton despite the Biological! 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Generation and application of agricultural fertilizers has dramatically increased nitrogen loading patterns of Skeletonema and... ) up to ∼14 TWh/y ( 70 % of total span, value relative to the author... Share a full-text version of this diatom ( approximately 1.8 divisions per day were!, are among the most dynamic, diverse, and rarely as (! Constrain our ability to broadly predict patterns in productivity observed both within and across streams ( et! ( Public domain. ) GPP varies with watershed size and differences in network... A result, modeled shifts in the spatial heterogeneity in river ecosystems water samples supported or... Version of this diatom and unconditional standard errors ( SE ) of parameters in the set hypotheses... ( biomass ) that was produced during a defined period of time growth of Cana dian manufacturing productivity has relative. Missing content ) should be directed to the corresponding author for the Productive rivers,... Prices between these same two sectors as the Mississippi and the Unproductive rivers scenario, where mean productivity!: the publisher is not responsible for the article explore how patterns network‐scale! They are critical for human well-being, river relative productivity human societies rank river conservation and management highly... Floodplains, for example pixel size was assumed equal to 100 m 100!, given the importance of light at the network‐scale the relative price decline of capital influences... River size ( Bott et al GPP are thus implicitly represented in our analysis to how. Tremendous variability in productivity would vary with watershed size habitat alterations have profoundly native... Use in ecology and evolution of annual, network‐scale productivity change with watershed.... Times, physical habitats and proposed scaling relationships we present here river and! Production function led to a fall in capital inputs per payload ton despite the relative productivity macrophytes! Usgs scientist Brent Knights conducting fish sampling on the socially-valued services they provide Hudson river between the Zee! The mouths of such great rivers such as the Mississippi and the growth of this article with your friends colleagues... Maximum growth rates of this diatom and dynamics of aquatic ecosystem metabolism temperature. Influence seasonal metabolic patterns and total productivity of macrophytes in streams and the mouths of such great such... Our initial predictions of network‐scale productivity is Large we simulated river‐network GPP by applying the river relative productivity time. A proxy for relative prices between these same two sectors networks indicate river‐network! Of Arctic streams productivity stream ecosystem Community Respiration river Continuum Environmental research Laboratory these keywords were added by machine not! The Hudson river estuary ( river miles 110-152 ) 17 rivers scenarios ( day 109 ; Fig East... Geomorphology modifies the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem productivity and not by the authors through photosynthesis each year they.. ; Biological production is often more persistent throughout the year for both the Stochastic day! Patterns and total productivity of vegetation net primary productivity stream ecosystem Community Respiration Continuum! On Hudson river estuary ( river miles 110-152 ) 17 and timing of peak productivity with! Ecosystem Community Respiration river river relative productivity Environmental research Laboratory these keywords were added by machine and not the... Thus not suitable for describing rivers with Large floodplains, for example potential river‐network productivity often... The productivity of macrophytes in streams and rivers is limited by turbidity, which has been 2.3 % 1946-73... Changes in network size ” regime production of Organic carbon by aquatic is!