Historical scholarship. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work that dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death. Under Antiochus I (c. 324/323 – 261 BC), however, the unwieldy empire was already beginning to shed territories. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. 280 BC), the Boeotian league, the "Northern League" (Byzantium, Chalcedon, Heraclea Pontica and Tium) and the "Nesiotic League" of the Cyclades. The Odrysian Kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes under the kings of the powerful Odrysian tribe centered around the region of Thrace. In some fields Hellenistic culture thrived, particularly in its preservation of the past. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 117–118. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Attalus severely defeated the Gauls, forcing them to confine themselves to Galatia. Certain eastern cults were accepted by the Greeks virtually intact. to the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century of the Common Era. Seleucus' war elephants proved decisive, Antigonus was killed, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there by recapturing a rebellious Athens. Greek dedications, statues, architecture, and inscriptions have all been found. Antigonus fled for Greece, and then, together with Antipater and Craterus (the satrap of Cilicia who had been in Greece fighting the Lamian war) invaded Anatolia. Antigonus remained in charge of Asia Minor, Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace and Seleucus I controlled Babylon. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Peter Green, on the other hand, writes from the point of view of late-20th-century liberalism, his focus being on individualism, the breakdown of convention, experiments, and a postmodern disillusionment with all institutions and political processes. It was against this backdrop that the ascendancy of Macedon began, under king Philip II. In 189 BC, Rome sent Gnaeus Manlius Vulso on an expedition against the Galatians. In these subjects he could give consummate pleasure, selling them for more than other artists received for their large pictures" (Natural History, Book XXXV.112). Arnaldo Momigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. This 'Greco-Macedonian' population (which also included the sons of settlers who had married local women) could make up a phalanx of 35,000 men (out of a total Seleucid army of 80,000) during the reign of Antiochus III. Ptolemy invaded Syria and defeated Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, in the Battle of Gaza of 312 BC which allowed Seleucus to secure control of Babylonia, and the eastern satrapies. Not just in one field, but in everything they set their minds to...As subjects of a tyrant, what had they accomplished?...Held down like slaves they had shirked and slacked; once they had won their freedom, not a citizen but he could feel like he was labouring for himself". Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings. 5855 Hellenistic military equipment was generally characterized by an increase in size. The plastic arts of the Hellenistic age were characterized by dramatism, expressiveness, and the depiction of suffering, all designed to work on the viewer’s emotions. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs, and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India. He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty. Hierax carved off most of Seleucid Anatolia for himself, but was defeated, along with his Galatian allies, by Attalus I of Pergamon who now also claimed kingship. Etymology: Either via Hellenisme or or directly from Ἑλληνισμός, from Έλλην. After the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful. Spiritual peace lay in subordinating oneself totally, through impassivity and virtuousness, to the cosmic intelligence. It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire, although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The Hellenistic influence in Iran was significant in terms of scope, but not depth and durability—unlike the Near East, the Iranian–Zoroastrian ideas and ideals remained the main source of inspiration in mainland Iran, and was soon revived in late Parthian and Sasanian periods.. Astronomers like Hipparchus (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) built upon the measurements of the Babylonian astronomers before him, to measure the precession of the Earth. Greek emigres faced individual religious choices they had not faced on their home cities, where the gods they worshiped were dictated by tradition.  Following Droysen, Hellenistic and related terms, e.g. The Illyrians: history and culture, History and Culture Series, The Illyrians: History and Culture, Aleksandar Stipčević, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 233&236, "The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). [failed verification] Similarly complex devices were also developed by other Muslim engineers and astronomers during the Middle Ages. Notable genres were the erotic romance, involving legendary kings and generals (the Ninus Romance), and pseudohistorical depictions of the ideal social structure, as in the works of Iamblichus and Euhemerus. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. The image of Alexander the Great was also an important artistic theme, and all of the diadochi had themselves depicted imitating Alexander's youthful look.  Another astronomer, Aristarchos of Samos, developed a heliocentric system. The Nabateans resisted the attacks of Antigonus and were allies of the Hasmoneans in their struggle against the Seleucids, but later fought against Herod the Great. Towards the end 212 BC the country was divided into two kingdoms, Greater Armenia and Armenia Sophene, including Commagene or Armenia Minor.  The Romans, also allied with the Aetolian League of Greek city-states (which resented Philip's power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the Second Macedonian War. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The kingdoms of Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus were all practically independent by this time as well. The Epicurean school, which existed until the mid-fourth century of the Common Era, was an important influence on the world view of the Hellenistic age.  At the other is the view of the Italian physicist and mathematician Lucio Russo, who claims that scientific method was actually born in the 3rd century BC, to be forgotten during the Roman period and only revived in the Renaissance.. Hellenistic (comparative more Hellenistic, superlative most Hellenistic) Of or relating to the period of the Greek culture, history, or art after the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis. Specific areas conquered by Alexander's invading army, including Egypt and areas of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia "fell" willingly to conquest and viewed Alexander as more of a liberator than a conqueror..  Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized.. A. I. PAVLOVSKAIA (religion and mythology, historical scholarship), A. L. DOBROKHOTOV (philosophy), I. D. ROZHANSKII (natural sciences), V. N. IARKHO (literature), G. I. SOKOLOV (architecture and art), and G. A. KOSHELENKO (eastern Hellenistic art). As early as the beginning of the third century, works were written in Greek by indigenous scholar-priests: Manetho produced a history of Egypt under the pharaohs, Berosus a history of Babylonia, and Apollodorus of Artemis a history of the Parthians; in addition, historical works were written in indigenous languages, such as the Books of Maccabees, which describe the uprising of the Judeans against the Seleucids. At this point the tripartite territorial division of the Hellenistic age was in place, with the main Hellenistic powers being Macedon under Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas, the Ptolemaic kingdom under the aged Ptolemy I and the Seleucid empire under Seleucus' son Antiochus I Soter. The setting up of ruler cults was more based on the systematized honors offered to the kings (sacrifice, proskynesis, statues, altars, hymns) which put them on par with the gods (isotheism) than on actual belief of their divine nature. Philip continued to wage war against Pergamum and Rhodes for control of the Aegean (204–200 BC) and ignored Roman demands for non-intervention in Greece by invading Attica. The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. He considerably enlarged the Temple (see Herod's Temple), making it one of the largest religious structures in the world.  Angelos Chaniotis ends the Hellenistic period with the death of Hadrian in 138 AD, who integrated the Greeks fully into the Roman Empire; and a range from c. 321 BC to 256 AD may also be given.. When he was driven out of Greece by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the latter laid siege to Athens and razed the city. As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendancy of the Roman Republic. of ancient Greece and other countries of the Eastern…. Crateuas wrote a compendium on botanic pharmacy. With the support of roy… Cultural Achievements of the Hellenistic Age . The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them.  Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. Historians discussed such matters as the influence of fate and great men on historical events; the ideal form of the state, considered to be a combination of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy; and the merging of the histories of individual countries in world history. His descendant, Attalus I, defeated the invading Galatians and proclaimed himself an independent king. Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip V's son Perseus incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). These Hellenized Scythians were known as the "young Scythians". It was founded by Mithridates I in 291 BC and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BC. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. The Seleucids for example took on Apollo as patron, the Antigonids had Herakles, and the Ptolemies claimed Dionysus among others.. There was a temple to Serapis, the Greco-Egyptian god. Influenced by Philinus of Cos (fl. Under Ptolemy II, Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Theocritus, and a host of other poets including the Alexandrian Pleiad made the city a center of Hellenistic literature. In 338 BC, Philip defeated a combined Theban and Athenian army at the Battle of Chaeronea after a decade of desultory conflict. The renewal of the historiographical approach as well as some recent discoveries, such as the tombs of Vergina, allow a better appreciation of this period's artistic richness. Sparta remained independent, but it was no longer the leading military power in the Peloponnese. Partly fought in Greece topics constituted the subject matter Greek emigres faced individual religious choices they not!, contains the fragments of 150 authors. [ 143 ] Seleucus I Nicator received.. 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