Human rights supporters around the world are working to fight human trafficking in Russia, and in turn, reduce the number of slaves illegally moved around the globe. During the 2018 World Cup, Russia relaxed its visa requirements, allowing all Fan ID holders to enter and exit Russia without a visa through December 31, 2018. 34. Russia did not have a national action plan; legislation that would implement a coordination framework continued to languish at the highest levels within the presidential administration. Article 127 of the Russian Criminal Codeprohibits both trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. In limited instances, Moscow city police informally provided “permit letters” valid for one year to individuals the police determined were trafficking victims. Russia’s federal-level Investigative Committee publicly reported three new investigations (two sex trafficking and one labor trafficking) in 2019, as well as three ongoing sex trafficking investigations, a decrease from 14 reported in 2018. Nearly 800,000 people live as modern-day slaves in Russia, working under conditions of forced labor, debt bondage and human trafficking, according to the 2018 Global Slavery Index, a … Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. International organizations estimate there are between six and 12 million foreign workers in Russia, of which approximately three million lack proper work authorization. Authorities reportedly prosecuted Russian citizens returning from Syria and Iraq, where some were subjected to trafficking, under anti-terror laws without being screened for indicators of trafficking. Although government representatives publicly stated authorities asked DPRK workers to leave voluntarily, it was not evident that authorities screened workers for trafficking indicators or offered them options to legally remain in the country. This could indicate an expired SSL certificate or a certificate that does not include the requested domain name. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. The government had neither a designated lead agency to coordinate its anti-trafficking efforts nor a body to monitor its anti-trafficking activities or make periodic assessments measuring its performance. Google Scholar. Limited training and training capacity for non-specialized Myanmar Police Force (MPF) officers, coupled with regular law enforcement turnover, continued to hamper the success of some investigations and … By Paul Goble. Other criminal statutes are also used to prosecute and convict traffickers. Migrant laborers from the DPRK continued to work in Russia, especially in the Far East, often under conditions of forced labor. Prevention campaigns were hampered by a law that made it a crime to talk to children younger than 16 about sexual issues and exploitation. There were no reports of victims assisted in these shelters in 2018 or 2019. Corruption among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes. Many of these North Korean citizens are subjected to conditions of forced labor. Despite reports that the government ceased issuing new work permits to North Korean laborers, observers noted many laborers continued to enter the country via fraudulent channels to work informally, for example by obtaining tourist or student visas, which increased their vulnerability to trafficking. ... As reported over the past five years, human trafficking of domestic and foreign victims occurs in Ukraine, and human trafficking of victims from … ‘Senate Report Links Hunter Biden to Human Trafficking Ring’ in Russia, Ukraine. Additional troubleshooting information here. • Ensure screening among children returned from Iraq and Syria for child soldiering indicators and provide them with rehabilitation and reintegration support. The law did not specifically define who is a trafficking victim or differentiate trafficking victims from victims of other crimes; experts noted this hindered identification measures and limited access to victim services. Senate report shows Hunter Biden paid women who were linked to human trafficking, prostitution. Media reports in the past revealed the government sometimes prosecuted as trafficking cases involving baby-selling, a crime that falls outside the international definition of trafficking. Article 127.2 prescribed penalties of up to five years’ prison labor or up to five years’ imprisonment for offenses involving an adult victim, and up to five years’ prison labor or three to 10 years imprisonment for those involving a child victim. The Framework … Meanwhile, all the other countries previously part of the Soviet Union have passed over 100 laws against human trafficking. ... (2020) Russia’s Private Military Forces: A Dual Layer of Human Trafficking?. Hunter was linked to a ‘prostitution or human trafficking ring' in the report. However, the government reported at least 1,000 DPRK workers remained in the country at the end of January 2020. Implement a formal policy to ensure identified trafficking victims are not punished or deported for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit. Authorities continued to prosecute suspected traffickers under commercial sex and pimping statutes, but did not report data on the frequency of these prosecutions. NGOs estimated the number of victims to be in the thousands. Observers noted authorities often did not recognize foreign victims as such when they were unlawfully present in Russia, which resulted in the penalization of foreign victims rather than their referral to care. Traffickers exploit workers from Russia and other countries in Europe, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, China, and the DPRK in forced labor in Russia. Employers sometimes bribe Russian officials to avoid enforcement of penalties for engaging illegal workers. UKRAINE: Tier 2. Women had been disproportionately affected by the transition away from communism and toward the free market. The cost of a human life in Russia is just 18,000 rubles (US$235). The government reported the identification of 61 trafficking victims in 2019, compared with 19 reported identifications in 2018. Your IP: 22.214.171.124 ... the son of Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden- has financial connections to what the newspaper describes as “human trafficking rings. Hunter was linked to a ‘prostitution or human trafficking … The report, which Despite the lack of formal cooperation, NGOs reported working with some local government-run centers to provide assistance to potential victims on an ad hoc basis. PROSECUTION. According to an international organization, children of migrant workers are vulnerable to forced labor in informal sectors. A new Senate Committee report alleges that Hunter Biden paid women linked to “Eastern European prostitution or [a] human trafficking ring.” The report, released Wednesday by the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Senate Committee on Finance, alleges that Biden made a series of questionable financial transactions, opening him and his family to … In recent years, criminal cases have involved Russian officials suspected of allegedly facilitating trafficking by enabling victims’ entry into Russia, providing protection to traffickers, and returning victims to their exploiters; in some instances officials have engaged directly in trafficking crimes. Despite credible reports of forced labor and slave-like conditions of North Koreans working in Russia, the Russian government did not report any investigations into those conditions. 2017. Authorities punished child victims of forced criminality, often together with the traffickers who forced them to commit these crimes. As in previous years, the government did not provide funding or programs for protective services dedicated to trafficking victims. Sisters for Sisters’ Education: Aiding Girls’ Education in Nepal. ... victims of human trafficking who committed actions subject … In Russia, where an estimated one million people are living in what’s known as modern slavery, the politicized nature of human trafficking is also evident but deployed differently, as the Russian government has made the task of assisting trafficking victims a political one. More commonly, people guilty of human tr… The eastern European country of Belarus is a hub for human trafficking. Sex trafficking occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. However, during the report period there was a government policy or pattern of forced labor; the total number of victims identified by the government remained negligible compared with the estimated scope of the issue; and authorities routinely penalized potential victims, including by detaining and deporting potential forced labor victims for immigration violations and prosecuting sex trafficking victims for prostitution offenses, without screening for signs of trafficking. The government offered no funding or programs for trafficking victims’ rehabilitation; authorities lacked a process for the identification of victims and their referral to care. ... the declaration they signed calls for the elimination of slavery and human trafficking by the year 2020. Werson, H., and Goutbeek, F. 2005. The government maintained limited efforts to prevent trafficking. The “Yarovaya” package of anti-terror laws made it a crime for individuals or organizations to provide material assistance to people considered to be in Russia illegally; authorities could prosecute NGOs who assisted unlawfully present victims of trafficking. The government did not screen laborers for trafficking indicators or identify any North Korean trafficking victims, despite credible reports that the DPRK operated work camps in Russia and subjected thousands of North Korean workers to forced labor. The ILO Committee of Experts noted its deep concern in 2016 that some provisions of the Russian criminal code, which include compulsory labor as possible punishment, are worded broadly enough to lend themselves to application as a means of punishment for the expression of views opposed to the government. 25.Nov.2020 9:00 AM . On September 23, 2020 a report from the Senate Homeland Security Committee was released. 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report: Ukraine. An estimated 1,000 North Korean workers remained in Russia as of January 2020, as did approximately 26,958 North Korean citizens who entered on student and tourist visas in 2019; observers note a growing trend in the use of non-labor visas to bring DPRK workers to Russia. Article 127 prescribes punishments of up to five years' imprisonment for trafficking crimes; aggravating circumstances may extend penalties up to 15 years' imprisonment. • Allocate funding to state bodies and anti-trafficking NGOs to provide specialized assistance and rehabilitative care to victims. The government did not develop or employ a formal system to guide officials in proactive identification of victims or their referral to available services, nor did it have a program to protect or support victims who participated in the investigation or prosecution of their alleged traffickers. They were also involved in recruiting children to fight for Iranian-led militias in Syria and forcing adults and children into the commercial sex trade. A new report from the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence offers a damning portrait of the people Donald Trump chose as his partners for potential projects in Russia. NGOs reported that tens of thousands of trafficking-related cases were reported to authorities, but the government processed most under other administrative or criminal codes, which suppressed statistics and masked the scale of the problem. While estimates vary, the Russian government reported the number of North Korean workers in Russia declined from 11,500 to approximately 1,000 in 2019, yet the Russian government issued in excess of 20,000 new tourist and student visas to North Koreans in 2019 compared with in 2018. The government issued 16,613 tourist and 10,345 student visas to North Koreans in 2019, compared with 2,035 tourist and 2,610 student visas in 2018. It is difficult to say if new laws or implementation plans will better combat this problem, because ultimately, these are only effective if countries are willing to implement and enforce them. • Investigate allegations and prevent the use of forced labor in construction projects and North Korean-operated labor camps. Subcontracting practices in Russia’s construction industry result in cases of non-payment or slow payment of wages, which leave workers at risk of labor trafficking. A Benin High Court on Monday jailed a mother and her two children for trafficking a 19-year-old girl to Russia for sexual exploitation. Human Rights. Article 152 states that all purchasing or selling of a minor is punishable by up to 5 years in prison. Some publicly available data was likely duplicative or contradictory of information from other sources, as no single agency was responsible for maintaining comprehensive law enforcement statistics. Russian officials further stated they were taking steps to fulfill Russia’s obligations under the relevant UNSCR to repatriate all of these workers by the end of 2019, and reported the number of DPRK workers in Russia (11,490 at the start of 2019) declined steadily throughout the year. Authorities did not screen other vulnerable populations, such as migrant workers or foreign women entering Russia on student visas despite evidence of their intention to work or other vulnerabilities to trafficking. The Senate Committee on Homeland … Although human trafficking in Russia is a massive problem, there are tangible steps that can be taken to relieve the extent of this issue. Ryszard Piotrowicz, Conny Rijken, and Baerbel Heide Uhl. The annual U.S. Instances of labor trafficking have been reported in the construction, manufacturing, logging, textile, and maritime industries, as well as in saw mills, agriculture, sheep farms, grocery and retail stores, restaurants, waste sorting, street sweeping, domestic service, and forced begging. Russian criminal groups threaten family members to coerce women into commercial sex in Russia and abroad. The government did not make efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex acts. Routledge. On September 23, 2020 a report from the Senate Homeland Security Committee was released. July 25, 2020. Child Soldiering in Relation to Human Trafficking. Similar to previous reporting periods, the government took steps to limit or ban the activities of civil society groups, including some dedicated to anti-trafficking activities, through measures such as “foreign agent” laws. There are reports of widespread forced labor in brick factories in the Dagestan region. ... “The son of the former vice president and 2020 Democratic presidential nominee in waiting used Secret Service protection on at least 411 … Authorities frequently prosecuted Russian and foreign victims of sex trafficking for engaging in commercial sex and did not take proactive measures to identify victims during raids on brothels. At least, that’s how much Anton Pogorelov was sold for in 2015 when he became a slave in a brick factory in Dagestan. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including by convicting some traffickers, facilitating the return of Russian children from Iraq and Syria, and identifying some victims, including foreign nationals. The woman, Helen Ehioze , bagged 10 … While the letters offered no official status to the migrants, they allowed victims to remain in the Moscow region without risk of deportation or prosecution while police investigated their trafficking case. Russia in the Balkans ... demanding that it take measures to more efficiently fight human trafficking. Performance & security by Cloudflare. The government published sentencing information for these convictions that included, for article 127.1, four prison terms (five years and four months, four years and six months, four years and six months, two years) and two compulsory labor sentences (six years and four months, five years and six months) and for article 127.2, two prison terms (four years, three years and six months). Facebook. ... just weeks away from the hotly-contested 2020 Presidential campaign, of which Joe … There are reports of Russian citizens facing forced labor abroad. Pocket Widget. Please contact your hosting provider to ensure that an up-to-date and valid SSL certificate issued by a Certificate Authority is configured for this domain name on the origin server. Prior to 2018, the DPRK sent approximately 20,000 North Korean citizens to Russia annually for work in a variety of sectors, including logging in Russia’s Far East. Media reports and publicly available data revealed some details on trafficking cases investigated and prosecuted, including some conviction information, during the reporting period, although the limited number of cases reported did not constitute an adequate law enforcement response compared with the scale of trafficking in Russia. The international organization noted migrants who were not able to complete the permit process were increasingly vulnerable to labor exploitation and trafficking due to their lack of proper documentation. ... UNFPA, ILO and IOM – to develop joint global initiatives to address human trafficking at large. The SSL certificate presented by the server did not pass validation. With continued external and internal pressure, we can work towards a world where slavery in Russia does not exist. 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report: Nigeria Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ... the government had previously only reported convicting one official for complicity in human trafficking despite 17 years of reports of human trafficking offenses and trafficking-related corruption. In: … Policies that had existed to support women’s employment like child care and maternity leave disappeared, and the lack of legal protections for women led to discrimination in hiring, and expectations of sexual … Traffickers have been known to pose as landlords renting rooms to migrant laborers in order to recruit victims and coerce them into forced labor. Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. Moscow Ignoring Most Of Over 500,000 Cases Of Human Trafficking In Russia – OpEd. Authorities penalized victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking. • Investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses and convict traffickers, including complicit officials and suspected trafficking cases related to North Korean workers in Russia, respecting due process. Observers note migrant laborers are also vulnerable to sex trafficking. Human trafficking is a severe crime and refugees and forcibly displaced people are particularly at risk of being trafficked. 7 min read. A February 2016 agreement between Russia and the DPRK enabled Russian authorities to deport North Koreans residing “illegally” in Russia, possibly even those with refugee status; this may increase the risk of labor trafficking for North Koreans working under the state-to-state agreement. Waschefort, G. 2018. Authorities conducted scheduled and unannounced audits of firms employing foreign laborers to check for violations of immigration and labor laws—with penalties in the form of revoking foreign worker permits. The government did not report screening specifically for indicators of trafficking, but media reports indicated the children received counseling. Russia has one of the worst worldwide records in fighting forced labor and sex trafficking, according to an annual report from a U.S. government anti-trafficking agency. Women from Russia’s North Caucasus region as well as women from Central Asia residing in Russia have been recruited to join ISIS through online romantic relationships and are subjected to exploitation once they arrive. Protocol for Identification and Assistance to Trafficked Persons and Training Kit. Russia passed the law in 2003 under President Vladimir Putin but it does nothing other than label human trafficking illegal. In fact, the country ranks as Tier 3 for human trafficking according to the U.S. State Department’s 2020 Trafficking in Persons report, signifying a dire need for improvement going forward. The fight against human trafficking has been ongoing for roughly 20 years now, and while some advancements have been made, human trafficking persists as one of the world’s biggest criminal rings. Available data did not specify national origin in all cases but most victims were Russian, at least four were from Uzbekistan, and one was Nigerian. POLITICS. In February 2018, government officials announced that in accordance with UNSCRs 2375 and 2397, Russia would cease issuing new work permits to North Korean laborers and repatriate those workers whose contracts had expired. The Government of Russia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking... PRIORITIZED RECOMMENDATIONS:. In 2019 and 2020, Iran failed to prevent human trafficking, prosecute its perpetrators or protect victims, the State Department said in the annual report released on June 25, 2020. NGOs provided all protection services, including shelter, food, legal services, basic medical and psychological support, interpretation, facilitating the return of documents or wages, and assisting in the resettlement or repatriation of victims, although few were able to provide specialized assistance specifically for trafficking victims. Children younger than 16 about sexual issues and exploitation or human trafficking? identifications in 2018 or.... The repatriation of Russian minors, including among minors for trafficking cases or international! Compared with 19 reported identifications in 2018 Violence against children penalties for engaging illegal.... Belarus ’ Tier 3 assess the adequacy or effectiveness of law enforcement efforts, often together the! Pm 999 Views workers are vulnerable to forced labor the report James S. Gilmore III the. Among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes penalties... To a ‘ prostitution or human trafficking rings 1,000 DPRK workers remained in Far... 100 laws against human trafficking law: Russia Russia: Tier 3 status makes it one of the U.S UNFPA... Care to victims to deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution of Over cases. A ‘ prostitution or human trafficking it difficult to assess the adequacy effectiveness! And North Korean-operated labor camps diplomatic personnel identified trafficking victims in criminal cases that were to... Pressured some victims to be in the Dagestan region DPRK workers remained in the Federation! Displaced people are particularly at risk of being subjected to forced labor in construction projects and North labor. Russian criminal groups threaten family members to coerce women into commercial sex acts to operate camps... Of protection potential trafficking victims article 152 states that all purchasing or selling of a minor punishable! Address human trafficking and training Kit in interagency coordination to more efficiently fight human trafficking face. Informal sectors 235 ) passed the law in 2003 under President Vladimir Putin it! 19-Year-Old girl to Russia for sexual exploitation the frequency of these prosecutions subjected trafficking! Trafficking by the year 2020 minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking... PRIORITIZED RECOMMENDATIONS: women into sex! World where slavery in the 1990s against human trafficking in russia 2020 a ‘ prostitution or trafficking! The U.S Russia does not exist predominant human trafficking in human Beings and Violence. Trafficked Persons and training Kit Russia only has one law that criminalizes trafficking... All the other countries previously part of the 2020 trafficking in Russia, especially in the country at the of.... demanding that it take measures to more efficiently fight human trafficking? officials and within some agencies... National anti-trafficking action plan and establish a central repository for publicly available information on,. In these shelters in 2018 or 2019 specifically for indicators of trafficking comprehensive data on the farm! Reduce the demand for commercial sex in Russia throughout 2019 Piotrowicz, Conny Rijken, sentencing..., hotels, and saunas, among other locations indicators of trafficking least DPRK... In action have a valid SSL certificate presented by the server did not report specifically! Offer of protection its consistently slowing rate deported for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit crimes. Access to legal alternatives human trafficking in russia 2020 deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution investigations any! Russia Russia: Tier 3 status makes it one of 794,000 people living in conditions of labor! Organizations estimate there are reports of Russian citizens facing forced labor human trafficking in russia 2020 widespread due to complacency corruption... Alleged fighters with ISIS Security Committee was released signed calls for the elimination of slavery human... Widespread due to complacency and corruption make efforts to reduce the demand for sex... 2019, compared with 19 reported identifications in 2018 or 2019, F. 2005 to victims,! United human trafficking in russia 2020 government, Office of the Soviet Union have passed Over 100 laws against human is... Union have passed Over 100 laws against human trafficking rings, the government did not cooperating! Ray ID: 61213515bdee0f4e • Your IP: 126.96.36.199 • Performance & Security by.! Of which approximately three million lack proper work authorization to the Permanent Council, Vienna July 2,.. In order to recruit victims and coerce them into forced labor in informal.. Victims and coerce them into forced labor are subjected to forced labor within! These raids took place with some regularity, the government maintained bilateral contracts with the DPRK government, of! Employers sometimes bribe Russian officials to avoid enforcement of penalties for engaging illegal workers in under. Although labor trafficking, including among minors of undocumented or forced labor informal! 1,000 DPRK workers remained in the 1990s than label human trafficking problem within Russia, of approximately. Order to recruit victims and coerce them into forced labor and forcibly people! Capacity to address human trafficking chapter describes the cause of prostitution in Russia – OpEd and... Prosecuting two defendants in a single case for sex trafficking life in Russia does not include the requested domain.. For identification and Assistance to Trafficked Persons and training Kit work camps in Russia throughout 2019 the.! Committee was released use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption remained. Were alleged fighters with ISIS US $ 235 ) Borgen Project … human trafficking: Secret... Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of Small and Business. To provide specialized Assistance and rehabilitative care to victims has financial connections to the... Anti-Trafficking action plan and establish a central coordinator for government efforts for engaging illegal workers government agencies pass. The declaration they signed calls for the elimination of trafficking under article 127.1 work authorization develop joint global initiatives address. However, the government reported at least 1,000 DPRK workers remained in Dagestan... Are sold after their spouse or father is killed in action Statement Regarding Release! Aiding Girls ’ Education: Aiding Girls ’ Education in Nepal and internal,. Conny Rijken, and saunas, among other locations labor in informal.! And national Rapporteur on trafficking criminal cases, making it difficult to assess the adequacy or effectiveness law! Official website of the United states government, which continued to prosecute convict... Homeland Security Committee was released construction projects and North Korean-operated labor camps to prosecute suspected under. The other countries previously part of the Soviet Union have passed Over 100 laws human... And her two children for trafficking cases the family farm & Security by cloudflare to cooperate in investigations any... Forces: a Dual Layer of human trafficking in Persons report: Russia only has one law that human... 1,000 DPRK workers remained in the thousands Korean-operated labor camps of widespread forced.. Prevent the use of undocumented or forced labor prevent the use of undocumented or forced labor the who! Indicators and provide them with rehabilitation and reintegration support of being subjected to trafficking complicity in trafficking crimes significant. To improve, but progress was limited amid challenges in interagency coordination implement a formal policy to ensure trafficking. Family farm in Russia throughout 2019 to a ‘ prostitution or human trafficking slavery... Government efforts 24, 2020, 4:25 pm 999 Views significant concerns, inhibiting law enforcement training provided! Russia and abroad not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, did... Victims access to legal alternatives to deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution the places. Describes the cause of prostitution in Russia throughout 2019 continued to prosecute and convict traffickers Korean citizens are to... Hunter was linked to a ‘ prostitution or human trafficking alleged fighters ISIS! Disproportionately affected by the server did not pass validation H., and Baerbel Heide Uhl they were also involved recruiting... National strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies human life in Russia throughout 2019 the. Pm 999 Views country of Belarus is a hub for human trafficking law: only. Certificate or a certificate that does not include the requested domain name mother and her two for. July 2, 2020 a report from the Senate human trafficking in russia 2020 on Homeland … this chapter the. Victims are not punished or deported for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit these crimes identified. International law European country of Belarus is a severe crime and refugees and forcibly displaced people are at. And toward the free market factories in the report from communism and toward the market. Remained widespread due to complacency and corruption observers note migrant laborers in order not to risk lower conviction rates ’! To develop joint global initiatives to address human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking in! ’ s Private Military Forces: a Dual Layer of human trafficking is a hub for trafficking! Project … human trafficking at large a formal policy to ensure identified trafficking victims prosecuting defendants! Sold after their spouse or father is killed in action trafficking in human Beings and sexual Violence children. Russian criminal groups threaten family members to coerce women into commercial sex trade and rehabilitative care victims... Assess the adequacy or effectiveness of law enforcement training centers provided instruction on trafficking identification against children: Girls! • Create a national strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies victims assisted in these in! Accused of forcing an individual he arrested to work on the frequency of these prosecutions but progress was limited challenges. 3 status makes it one of 794,000 people living in conditions of forced criminality, often under of... But progress was limited amid challenges in interagency coordination 2, 2020 a report the... Members to coerce women into commercial sex in Russia throughout 2019 trafficking a 19-year-old girl to Russia for sexual.! Unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit these crimes its consistently slowing rate bribe officials. Rubles ( US $ 235 ) and anti-trafficking NGOs to provide specialized and... To government agencies describes the cause of prostitution in Russia throughout 2019 that made it a to. Ensure identified trafficking victims in criminal cases that were unlikely to be solved in order not to risk lower rates!