The city is a world centre of archaeological research. She was associated with birds, particularly the owl, which became famous as the city’s own symbol, and with the snake. The largest and oldest university in Athens is the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Being the favourite child of Zeus, she had great power. "Indications of the Urban Heat Island in Athens, Greece". 14 déc. The Greek Government, aided by the EU, has funded major infrastructure projects such as the state-of-the-art Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, the expansion of the Athens Metro system, and the new Attiki Odos Motorway.. Paysages Du Monde Voyage Villes Du Monde Paysage Voyage Voyage Europe Idée Voyage Destination Voyage Voyage En Grèce Athènes. Best Greek Restaurants in Athens, Attica: Find Tripadvisor traveler reviews of Athens Greek restaurants and search by price, location, and more. "Homepage – The Company – Attiko Metro S.A." Attiko Metro S.A. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. 24, Issue 12, pp.1296–1302. In January 2007, Athens faced a waste management problem when its landfill near Ano Liosia, an Athenian suburb, reached capacity.  The only observable problem was a somewhat sparse attendance of some early events.  After World War II, internationally known architects to have designed and built in the city included Walter Gropius, with his design for the US Embassy, and, among others, Eero Saarinen, in his postwar design for the east terminal of the Ellinikon Airport. The centre of Athens was largely rebuilt, leading to the demolition of a number of neoclassical buildings. The population of the unincorporated communities below is not mentioned here. Iakovides, S. 1962. All over the city can be found several statues or busts. In 1896, the city had a population of 123,000 and the event helped boost the city's international profile.  The line connects the western suburbs of Athens with the southeast suburbs, passing through the center of Athens. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the God of the Seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city; they agreed that whoever gave the Athenians the better gift would become their patron and appointed Cecrops, the king of Athens, as the judge. By the late 1970s, the pollution of Athens had become so destructive that according to the then Greek Minister of Culture, Constantine Trypanis, "...the carved details on the five the caryatids of the Erechtheum had seriously degenerated, while the face of the horseman on the Parthenon's west side was all but obliterated. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Athena’s moral and military superiority to Ares derives in part from the fact that she represents the intellectual and civilized side of war and the virtues of justice and skill, whereas Ares represents mere blood lust. Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. She was widely worshipped, but in modern times she is associated primarily with Athens, to which she gave her name. The Temple of Olympian Zeus with river Ilisos by Edward Dodwell, 1821. She was thought to have had neither consort nor offspring. It is the largest container port in East Mediterranean Sea Basin. Mavros takes a few side trips to some other Greek locations—Crete, Delphi and Thessaloniki—until returning to Athens and the kidnapping of a Greek shipping magnate in the most recent in the series, The White Sea (2014). With Greece in the middle of a coronavirus pandemic and having just successfully dealt with a major migration crisis asymmetrically launched by Turkey, anarcho-feminists have taken the opportunity under the cover of darkness on the lockdown quiet streets of Athens to vandalise a church for their political agenda.  Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery. That she ultimately became allegorized to personify wisdom and righteousness was a natural development of her patronage of skill. The Municipality of Athens has an official population of 664,046 people. According to their geographic location in relation to the City of Athens, the suburbs are divided into four zones; the northern suburbs (including Agios Stefanos, Dionysos, Ekali, Nea Erythraia, Kifissia, Kryoneri, Maroussi, Pefki, Lykovrysi, Metamorfosi, Nea Ionia, Nea Filadelfeia, Irakleio, Vrilissia, Melissia, Penteli, Chalandri, Agia Paraskevi, Gerakas, Pallini, Galatsi, Psychiko and Filothei); the southern suburbs (including Alimos, Nea Smyrni, Moschato, Tavros, Agios Ioannis Rentis, Kallithea, Piraeus, Agios Dimitrios, Palaio Faliro, Elliniko, Glyfada, Lagonisi, Saronida, Argyroupoli, Ilioupoli, Varkiza, Voula, Vari and Vouliagmeni); the eastern suburbs (including Zografou, Dafni, Vyronas, Kaisariani, Cholargos and Papagou); and the western suburbs (including Peristeri, Ilion, Egaleo, Koridallos, Agia Varvara, Keratsini, Perama, Nikaia, Drapetsona, Chaidari, Petroupoli, Agioi Anargyroi, Ano Liosia, Aspropyrgos, Eleusina, Acharnes and Kamatero).  Concerts and theatrical shows, such as those by the troupe Cirque du Soleil, have recently been held in the complex. Athens is the colourful capital of Greece, that offers things to do for all kinds of travellers and for every budget. Athens has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1896 and 2004. Athens expanded its settlement in the second half of the Middle Byzantine Period, in the 9th to 10th centuries AD, and was relatively prosperous during the Crusades, benefiting from Italian trade. The Italian Embassy in Vasilissis Sofias Avenue. The only legal uber in Athens is taxi uber that uses regular taxis at regular taxi prices.Anything using a normal car is illegal apart from very few travel agency cars.Finding one is a challenge.They are rare We have used Uber and Beat many times in Greece and never had an issue, however, you should keep that in mind. Notable actors of Greek operettas, who made also a series of melodies and songs popular at that time, include Orestis Makris, Kalouta sisters, Vasilis Avlonitis, Afroditi Laoutari, Eleni Papadaki, Marika Nezer, Marika Krevata and others.  Damage to the park has led to worries over a stalling in the improvement of air quality in the city. Parts of the City Centre have been redeveloped under a masterplan called the Unification of Archeological Sites of Athens, which has also gathered funding from the EU to help enhance the project. It is also the busiest passenger port in Europe and one of the largest passenger ports in the world. The rapid expansion of the modern city, which continues to this day, was initiated in the 1950s and 1960s, because of Greece's transition from an agricultural to an industrial nation. The city has the largest airport in Greece and the largest port in Greece, which is also the largest port in Mediterranean in containers transport and the largest passenger port in Europe. Smaller zoos exist within public gardens or parks, such as the zoo within the National Garden of Athens. Athens is the hub of the country's national railway system (OSE), connecting the capital with major cities across Greece and abroad (Istanbul, Sofia, Belgrade and Bucharest). Athens has hosted the EuroLeague final three times, the first in 1985 and second in 1993, both at the Peace and Friendship Stadium, most known as SEF, a large indoor arena, and the third time in 2007 at the Olympic Indoor Hall. By the mid-4th century BC, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs. The Athens Metropolitan Area, with an area of 2,928.717 km2 (1,131 sq mi) and inhabited by 3,753,783 people in 2011, consists of the Athens Urban Area with the addition of the towns and villages of East and West Attica, which surround the dense urban area of the Greek capital. The National Garden of Athens was completed in 1840 and is a green refuge of 15.5 hectares in the centre of the Greek capital. Its network consists of about 300 bus lines and 22 trolleybus lines which span the Athens Metropolitan Area, with a fleet of 1,839 buses and 366 trolleybuses.  Dut to the large area covered by Athens Metropolitan Area, there are notable climatic differences between parts of the urban conglomeration. Advertisement in www.Books-In-Greek.gr:: Biblionet. The first modern city plan consisted of a triangle defined by the Acropolis, the ancient cemetery of Kerameikos and the new palace of the Bavarian king (now housing the Greek Parliament), so as to highlight the continuity between modern and ancient Athens.  In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. The Iliad and the Odyssey are long poems that tell exciting stories about warfare, travel and the Greek gods. They together with the regional unit of Piraeus (Greater Piraeus) make up the dense Athens Urban Area which reaches a total population of 3,090,508 inhabitants (in 2011). The 1906 Summer Olympics, or the 1906 Intercalated games, were held in Athens. In post-Mycenaean times the city, especially its citadel, replaced the palace as Athena’s domain. The airport is served by the Metro, the suburban rail, buses to Piraeus port, Athens' City Centre, Liosion and Kifisos Intercity bus stations and Elliniko metro's line 2 southern terminal, and also taxis. For the greatest part of the 19th century Neoclassicism dominated Athens, as well as some deviations from it such as Eclecticism, especially in the early 20th century. Nikos Gounaris was probably the most renowned composer and singer of the time. However the numbers would include all of Athenian territory which consisted almost entirely of modern Attica region expect the territory of the city-state of Megaris and the island section. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Municipality of Athens (also City of Athens), which actually constitutes a small administrative unit of the entire city, had a population of 664,046 (in 2011) within its official limits, and a land area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi). have their regional research and development headquarters also there. In Homer’s Iliad, Athena, as a war goddess, inspires and fights alongside the Greek heroes; her aid is synonymous with military prowess. Of the venues used for these Olympics, the Kallimarmaro Stadium, and Zappeion were most crucial. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Theseus was responsible, according to the myth, for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens. Eventually, however, a total of more than 3.5 million tickets were sold, which was higher than any other Olympics with the exception of Sydney (more than 5 million tickets were sold there in 2000). There are also transfer connections with the Blue Line 3 at Syntagma station and with the tram at Syntagma, Syngrou Fix and Neos Kosmos stations. Quand partir ? These clubs also have basketball teams; Panathinaikos and Olympiacos are among the top powers in European basketball, having won the Euroleague six times and three respectively, whilst AEK Athens was the first Greek team to win a European trophy in any team sport. The atmosphere of such a competition is described in full detail in the Iliad, the oldest literary work written in the Greek alphabetic script. The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. Athens (/ ˈ æ θ ɪ n z / ATH-inz; Greek: Αθήνα, romanized: Athína (); Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, romanized: Athênai (pl.)  Greece's most notable, and internationally famous, composers of Greek song, mainly of the entechno form, are Manos Hadjidakis and Mikis Theodorakis. The intercalated competitions were intermediate games to the internationally organized Olympics, and were meant to be organized in Greece every four years, between the main Olympics. Athens sprawls across the central plain of Attica that is often referred to as the Athens Basin or the Attica Basin (Greek: Λεκανοπέδιο Αθηνών/Αττικής). The Panathenaic Stadium of Athens (Kallimarmaron) dates back to the 4th century BC and has hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. During the 1920s a number of Greek refugees, expelled from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War, swelled Athens's population; nevertheless it was most particularly following World War II, and from the 1950s and 1960s, that the population of the city exploded, and Athens experienced a gradual expansion. In football, Olympiacos have dominated the domestic competitions, Panathinaikos made it to the 1971 European Cup Final, while AEK Athens is the other member of the big three. In the 5th century BC, some great plays were written by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides.  In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Another important Athenian sport club is the Athens Tennis Club founded in 1895 with important offer for the Greek tennis..  The biggest stadium in the country, it hosted two finals of the UEFA Champions League, in 1994 and 2007. Public transport is serviced by a variety of transportation means, forming the largest mass transit system of Greece. 16–28. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The length of Athens's commuter rail network extends to 120 km (75 mi), and is expected to stretch to 281 km (175 mi) by 2010. "Assessing the thermal environment of major cities in Greece". The large City Centre (Greek: Κέντρο της Αθήνας) of the Greek capital falls directly within the Municipality of Athens or Athens Municipality (Greek: Δήμος Αθηναίων)—also City of Athens. The hills of Athens also provide green space. "Evolution of the air temperature in Athens and evidence of climatic change: A review". By the 6th century BC, widespread social unrest led to the reforms of Solon. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland and the warmest major city in Europe. Athens is one of the major economic centres in south-eastern Europe and is considered as a regional economic power in Europe generally.  Beyond the dimensions of its passenger capacity, ATH handled 205,294 total flights in 2007, or approximately 562 flights per day.. According to data from 2014, Athens as a metropolitan economic area produced 130 billion US-dollars as GDP in PPP, which consists nearly a half of the production for the whole country. The area has been redeveloped according to a design by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, with steel arches, landscaped gardens, fountains, futuristic glass, and a landmark new blue glass roof which was added to the main stadium. Interim Report, POLIS Research Project, European Commission, Directorate General for Science, Research and Development and human wellbeing and health. In the last round of voting, Athens defeated Rome with 66 votes to 41. The Saronic Gulf lies to the southwest. During the classical period the city's population is estimated from 150,000 to 350,000 and up to 610,000 according to Thucydides. Despite the fact that the Athenian songs were not autonomous artistic creations (in contrast with the serenades) and despite their original connection with mainly dramatic forms of Art, they eventually became hits as independent songs. Mysterious Greek terrorist groups appear in The Last Red Death (2008) and Russian immigrants in Athens start getting killed in The Golden Silence (2004). Learn more about the history and significance of Athens in this article. [atʰɛ̂ːnai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece. Some of them are PAO Rouf (Rouf) with earlier presence in Gamma Ethniki, Petralona F.C. Its main section extends from the western industrial suburb of Elefsina to Athens International Airport; while two beltways, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64) serve parts of western and eastern Athens respectively. The completed extension will be ready in 2022, connecting the biggest port of Greece, Piraeus Port, with the biggest airport of Greece the Athens International Airport. Greek tragedy developed specifically in the Attica region around Athens in the 6th Century or earlier. (el) (Kolonos), football club founded in 1919 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Athinais Kypselis [es] (Kypseli), football club founded in 1938 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Gyziakos (Gyzi), basketball club founded in 1937 with short presence in Beta Ethniki basketball and Aetos B.C. Do you want a B2B collaboration? (2001). , In 2008 it was reported that most of the Olympic venues had fallen into disrepair: according to those reports, 21 of the 22 facilities built for the games had either been left abandoned or are in a state of dereliction, with several squatter camps having sprung up around certain facilities, and a number of venues afflicted by vandalism, graffiti or strewn with rubbish. "On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings". The densely built up urban area of the Greek capital sprawls across 412 km2 (159 sq mi) throughout the Attica Basin and has a total population of 3,074,160 (in 2011). Athena became the goddess of crafts and skilled peacetime pursuits in general. Jump to phrases. The Maniot dialect belongs to the local area of Mani. Omissions? Variant names included Setines, Satine, and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of prepositional phrases. The architects of this era employed materials such as glass, marble and aluminium, and many blended modern and classical elements. The ancient site of the main city is centred on the rocky hill of the acropolis. Athens (/ˈæθɪnz/ ATH-inz; Greek: Αθήνα, romanized: Athína [aˈθina] (listen); Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, romanized: Athênai (pl.) , Tourism is also a great contributor for the economy of the city, which is considered as one of the top destinations in Europe for city-break tourism and is also the gateway for excursions to the islands or the mainland. It is to be found between the Parliament and Zappeion buildings, the latter of which maintains its own garden of seven hectares. (2011). Santamouris M. 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